The role of autophagy in unilateral ureteral obstruction rat model
ABSTRACT Autophagy is a cellular process of degradation of damaged cytoplasmic components and regulates cell death or proliferation. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a model of progressive renal fibrosis in the obstructed kidney. And UUO is followed by compensatory cellular proliferation in the contralateral kidney. We investigate the role of autophagy in the obstructed kidney and contralateral kidney after UUO.
To obtain the evidence and the patterns of autophagy during UUO, the rats were sacrificed 3, 7 and 14 days after UUO. To examine the efficacy of the autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal injection of 3-MA (30 mg/kg per day) for 7 days.
After UUO, autophagy was induced in the obstructed kidney in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA enhanced tubular cell apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney after UUO. In the contralateral kidney, autophagy was also induced and prolonged during UUO. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA increased the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen significantly in the contralateral kidney after UUO. The Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway was involved in the induction of autophagy after UUO in both kidneys.
Our present results support that autophagy induced by UUO has a renoprotective role in the obstructed kidney and regulatory role of compensatory cellular proliferation in the contralateral kidney through Akt-mTOR signalling pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferase isozyme A4 (GSTA4) exhibits high catalytic efficiency to metabolize 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a highly reactive lipid peroxidation product that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various chronic diseases. We investigated the role of 4-HNE in the mechanisms of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced fibrosis and its modulation by GSTA4-4 in a mouse model. Our data indicate that after UUO, accumulation of 4-HNE and its adducts were increased in renal tissues, with a concomitant decrease in the expression of GSTA4-4 in mice. As compared to wild-type (WT) mice, UUO caused an increased expression of fibroblast markers in the interstitium of GSTA4 KO mice. Additionally, increased autophagy and tubular cell damage were more severe in UUO-treated GSTA4 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, GSK-3β phosphorylation and expression of Snail, a regulator of E-cadherin and Occludin, was found to be significantly higher in UUO-inflicted GSTA4 KO mice. GSTA4 over-expression prevented 4-HNE-induced autophagy activation, tubular cell damage and Snail nuclear translocation in vitro. The effects of long-term expression of GSTA4 in restoration of UUO-induced damage in mice with the GSTA4 inducible transposon system indicated that release of obstruction after 3 days of UUO resulted in the attenuation of interstitial SMAα and collagen I expression. This transposon-delivered GSTA4 expression also suppressed UUO-induced loss of tubular cell junction markers and autophagy activation. Together, these results indicate that 4-HNE significantly contributes to the mechanisms of tubule injury and fibrosis and that these effects can be inhibited by the enhanced expression of GSTA4-4. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.The Journal of Pathology 01/2012; 228(4). DOI:10.1002/path.4067 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We recently reported that necrotic renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) can induce the death of renal interstitial fibroblasts. Since autophagy plays either cytoprotective or cytodestructive roles depending on the experimental condition, the present study was carried out to investigate whether necrotic RPTC would induce autophagy of renal interstitial fibroblasts and, if so, whether autophagy would contribute to cell death or exert a protective effect. Exposure of necrotic RPTC supernatant (RPTC-Sup) induced autophagy in renal interstitial fibroblast cells (NRK-49F) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and its induction was earlier than caspase-3 activation. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or knockdown of Beclin-1, a molecule involved in the initiation of autophagosome formation, with small interference RNA (siRNA) significantly enhanced necrotic RPTC-Sup-induced cell death. Necrotic RPTC-Sup induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs), and AKT. Treatment with an ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor, but not with specific inhibitors for p38, JNKs, or AKT pathways, blocked NRK-49F autophagy and cell death upon exposure to necrotic RPTC-Sup. Furthermore, knockdown of MEK1 with siRNA also reduced autophagy along with cell death in NRK-49F exposed to necrotic RPTC-Sup. In contrast, overexpression of MEK1/2 increased RPTC-Sup-induced fibroblast cell death without enhancing autophagy. Collectively, this study demonstrates that necrotic RPTC induce both autophagy and cell death and that autophagy plays a cytoprotective or prosurvival role in renal fibroblasts. Furthermore, necrotic RPTC-induced autophagy and cell death in renal fibroblasts is mediated by the activation of the MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.AJP Renal Physiology 04/2012; 303(1):F83-91. DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00027.2012 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a highly conserved homoeostatic mechanism for cell survival under conditions of stress, and is widely implicated as an important pathway in many biological processes and diseases. In progressive kidney diseases, fibrosis represents the common pathway to end-stage kidney failure. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has been established as a central mediator of kidney fibrosis. Recently emerging body of evidence from studies in renal cells in culture and experimental animal models suggests that TGF-β1 regulates autophagy and that autophagy regulates many critical aspects of normal and disease conditions associated with kidney fibrosis, such as tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, and diabetic nephropathy. Here, we review the recent advances exploring the process of autophagy, its regulation by TGF-β1, and implication in the pathogenesis of progressive kidney fibrosis and injury responses. Understanding the cellular and molecular bases of this process is crucial for identifying potential new diagnostic and therapeutic targets of kidney fibrosis.Seminars in Nephrology 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2013.11.009 · 2.94 Impact Factor