The role of autophagy in unilateral ureteral obstruction rat model.

Department of Anatomy and MRC for Cell Death Disease Research Center, Bucheon Saint Mary’s Hospital, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Geoynggi-do, 420-717 Korea.
Nephrology (Impact Factor: 1.69). 11/2011; 17(2):148-59. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2011.01541.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Autophagy is a cellular process of degradation of damaged cytoplasmic components and regulates cell death or proliferation. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a model of progressive renal fibrosis in the obstructed kidney. And UUO is followed by compensatory cellular proliferation in the contralateral kidney. We investigate the role of autophagy in the obstructed kidney and contralateral kidney after UUO.
To obtain the evidence and the patterns of autophagy during UUO, the rats were sacrificed 3, 7 and 14 days after UUO. To examine the efficacy of the autophagy inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), the rats were treated daily with intraperitoneal injection of 3-MA (30 mg/kg per day) for 7 days.
After UUO, autophagy was induced in the obstructed kidney in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA enhanced tubular cell apoptosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the obstructed kidney after UUO. In the contralateral kidney, autophagy was also induced and prolonged during UUO. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA increased the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen significantly in the contralateral kidney after UUO. The Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway was involved in the induction of autophagy after UUO in both kidneys.
Our present results support that autophagy induced by UUO has a renoprotective role in the obstructed kidney and regulatory role of compensatory cellular proliferation in the contralateral kidney through Akt-mTOR signalling pathway.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are major players in liver fibrogenesis. Accumulating evidence shows that suppression of autophagy plays an important role in the development and progression of liver disease. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to yield phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline, was recently shown to modulate autophagy. However, little is known about the effects of PLD1 on the production of type I collagen that characterizes liver fibrosis. Here, we examined whether PLD1 regulates type I collagen levels in HSCs through induction of autophagy. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PLD-1 (Ad-PLD1) reduced type I collagen levels in the activated human HSC lines, hTERT and LX2. Overexpression of PLD1 in HSCs led to induction of autophagy as demonstrated by increased LC3-II conversion and formation of LC3 puncta, and decreased p62 abundance. Moreover, inhibiting the induction of autophagy by treating cells with bafilomycin or a small interfering (si)RNA for ATG7 rescued Ad-PLD1-induced suppression of type I collagen accumulation in HSCs. The effects of PLD on type I collagen levels were not related to TGF-β/Smad signaling. Furthermore, treatment of cells with PA induced autophagy and inhibited type I collagen accumulation. The present study indicates that PLD1 plays a role in regulating type I collagen accumulation through induction of autophagy.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that necrotic renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC) can induce the death of renal interstitial fibroblasts. Since autophagy plays either cytoprotective or cytodestructive roles depending on the experimental condition, the present study was carried out to investigate whether necrotic RPTC would induce autophagy of renal interstitial fibroblasts and, if so, whether autophagy would contribute to cell death or exert a protective effect. Exposure of necrotic RPTC supernatant (RPTC-Sup) induced autophagy in renal interstitial fibroblast cells (NRK-49F) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and its induction was earlier than caspase-3 activation. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or knockdown of Beclin-1, a molecule involved in the initiation of autophagosome formation, with small interference RNA (siRNA) significantly enhanced necrotic RPTC-Sup-induced cell death. Necrotic RPTC-Sup induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs), and AKT. Treatment with an ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor, but not with specific inhibitors for p38, JNKs, or AKT pathways, blocked NRK-49F autophagy and cell death upon exposure to necrotic RPTC-Sup. Furthermore, knockdown of MEK1 with siRNA also reduced autophagy along with cell death in NRK-49F exposed to necrotic RPTC-Sup. In contrast, overexpression of MEK1/2 increased RPTC-Sup-induced fibroblast cell death without enhancing autophagy. Collectively, this study demonstrates that necrotic RPTC induce both autophagy and cell death and that autophagy plays a cytoprotective or prosurvival role in renal fibroblasts. Furthermore, necrotic RPTC-induced autophagy and cell death in renal fibroblasts is mediated by the activation of the MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
    AJP Renal Physiology 04/2012; 303(1):F83-91. · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significance: Autophagy is emerging as an important pathway in many biological processes and diseases. This review summarizes the current progress on the role of autophagy in renal physiology and pathology. Recent Advances: Studies from renal cells in culture, human kidney tissues, and experimental animal models implicate that autophagy regulates many critical aspects of normal and disease conditions in the kidney, such as diabetic nephropathy and other glomerular diseases, tubular injuries, kidney development and aging, cancer, and genetic diseases associated with the kidney. Critical Issues: The importance of autophagy in the kidney has just started to be elucidated. How the process of autophagy is altered in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and how this alteration is beneficial or detrimental to kidney functions still need to be fully understood. Future Directions: Investigations that uncover the precise mechanism and regulation of autophagy in various kidney diseases may lead to new strategies for therapeutic modulation.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 05/2013; · 8.20 Impact Factor