Article

HIV-related conspiracy beliefs and its relationships with HIV testing and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men in Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa.

Population Council, HIV and AIDS, Washington, DC, USA.
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 11/2011; 24(4):459-67. DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2011.617412
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine extent of HIV conspiracy belief endorsement among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Pretoria, and assess whether endorsement of HIV conspiracy beliefs are associated with inconsistent condom use and never testing for HIV. A cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling was conducted between February and August 2009. A high proportion of respondents endorsed HIV conspiracy beliefs. MSM commonly endorsed beliefs related to AIDS information being held back from the general public (51.0%), HIV being a man-made virus (25.5%), and people being used as guinea pigs in HIV research and with HIV treatments (approximately 20%). Bisexually- or heterosexually-identified MSM were significantly more likely to endorse conspiracy beliefs compared to homosexually-identified MSM (38.5% vs. 14.7%). Endorsing conspiracy beliefs was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse; however, it was significantly associated with not having been HIV tested (AOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1-5.7). Endorsing beliefs in HIV conspiracies reflects a mistrust in government institutions and systems which could be an impediment to seeking HIV-related services, including HIV counseling and testing.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
119 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conspiracist ideation has been repeatedly implicated in the rejection of scientific propositions, although empirical evidence to date has been sparse. A recent study involving visitors to climate blogs found that conspiracist ideation was associated with the rejection of climate science and the rejection of other scientific propositions such as the link between lung cancer and smoking, and between HIV and AIDS (Lewandowsky et al., in press; LOG12 from here on). This article analyses the response of the climate blogosphere to the publication of LOG12. We identify and trace the hypotheses that emerged in response to LOG12 and that questioned the validity of the paper's conclusions. Using established criteria to identify conspiracist ideation, we show that many of the hypotheses exhibited conspiratorial content and counterfactual thinking. For example, whereas hypotheses were initially narrowly focused on LOG12, some ultimately grew in scope to include actors beyond the authors of LOG12, such as university executives, a media organization, and the Australian government. The overall pattern of the blogosphere's response to LOG12 illustrates the possible role of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science, although alternative scholarly interpretations may be advanced in the future.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2013; 4:73. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00073 · 2.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundUNAIDS has called for greater HIV/syphilis testing worldwide just as local HIV/syphilis testing programs are cut or altered. New models are needed to make HIV/syphilis testing services sustainable while retaining their essential public health function. Social entrepreneurship, using business principles to promote a social cause, provides a framework to pilot programs that sustainably expand testing. Drawing on fieldwork in two South Chinese cities, we examined organizational and financial characteristics of current HIV/syphilis testing systems for men who have sex with men (MSM) in addition to new pilot programs focused on revenue-generation for sustainability.Methods We undertook a qualitative study to explore organizational and financial characteristics of HIV/syphilis testing for MSM. Data were collected from men who have sex with men and policy stakeholders in Guangzhou and Hong Kong. Framework analysis was used to identify themes and then code the data.ResultsOur qualitative research study included MSM and policy stakeholders (n¿=¿84). HIV/syphilis testing services were implemented at a wide range of organizations which we grouped broadly as independent community-based organizations (CBOs), independent clinics, and hybrid CBO-clinic sites. From an organizational perspective, hybrid CBO-clinic sites offered the inclusive environment of an MSM CBO linked to the technical capacity and trained staff of a clinic. From a financial perspective, stakeholders expressed concern about the sustainability and effectiveness of sexual health services reliant on external funding. We identified four hybrid CBO-clinic organizations that launched pilot testing programs in order to generate revenue while expanding HIV testing.Conclusion Many MSM CBOs are searching for new organizational models to account for decreased external support. Hybrid CBO-clinic organizations create a strong foundation to increase HIV/syphilis testing using social entrepreneurship models in China.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 14(1):601. DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0601-5 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A relatively neglected topic to date has been the occurrence of concentrated epidemics within generalized epidemic settings and the potential role of targeted interventions in such settings. We review recent studies in high-risk groups as well as findings relating to geographical heterogeneity and the potential for targeting 'high-transmission zones' in the 10 countries with highest HIV prevalence. Our review of recent studies confirmed earlier findings that, even in the context of generalized epidemics, MSM have a substantially higher prevalence than the general population. Estimates of prevalence of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) in sub-Saharan African countries are rarely available and, when they are, often outdated. We identified recent studies of sex workers in Kenya and Uganda. In all three cases - MSM, PWID, and sex workers - HIV prevalence estimates are mostly based on convenience. Moreover, good estimates of the total size of these populations are not available. Our review of recent studies of high-risk populations defined on the basis of geography showed high levels of both new and existing infections in Kenya (slums), South Africa (peri-urban communities), and Uganda (fishing villages). Recent empirical findings combined with evidence from phylogenetic studies and supported by mathematical models provide a clear rationale for testing the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of targeted HIV prevention approaches in hyperendemic populations to supplement measures aimed at the general population.
    Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 12/2013; DOI:10.1097/COH.0000000000000034 · 4.39 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
34 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014