Alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns are related to general and central adiposity.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
European journal of clinical nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.07). 11/2011; 66(3):305-13. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.189
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alcohol and dietary fat have high energy densities and may therefore be related to body weight and fat deposition. We studied associations between alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns and general and central adiposity.
A population-based cross-sectional study of 524 men and 611 women. The participants answered a dietary questionnaire describing habitual food consumption including intake of alcoholic beverages. Macronutrient intake was analysed in relation to anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry determined body fat.
In women, total alcohol intake was negatively associated with body fat percentage (β:-0.67, P<0.01). In men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) (β: 0.28, P=0.01). In addition, positive associations were found between intake of alcohol from spirits and body fat percentage (β: 1.17, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.52, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: 2.29, P=0.01). In men, protein intake was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (β: 0.03, P=0.001), body fat percentage (β: 0.04, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.02, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β: 0.09, P<0.01). Also in men only, negative associations between fat intake and BMI (β: -0.03, P<0.01), SAD (β: -0.02, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: -0.05, P<0.05) were found.
Alcohol intake was inversely associated to relative body fat in women whereas spirits consumption was positively related to central and general obesity in men. Macronutrient intakes, particularly protein and fat, were differently associated with obesity indicators in men versus women. This may reflect a differential effect by gender, or differential obesity related reporting errors in men and women.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), serum triglyceride (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are evaluated together in calculation of visceral adiposity index (VAI), is a newer described index. It has been proposed as a surrogate marker of adipose tissue dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the relationships of smoking and/or alcohol intake and VAI in healthy adult men in this study. For this purpose 96 healthy adult men were included to the study and divided into four groups; 52 both non-smokers and non-drinkers (Group NSNA), 21 smokers (Group S), 9 drinkers (Group A) and 14 both smoker and drinker (Group SA). Serum concentrations TG and HDL-C, body weight and waist circumference were measured, then BMI and VAI were calculated. There were no significantly differnece in age, BMI and WC (p >0,05). However, VAI, TG and HDL-C were significantly different between the groups (p values were 0,002; 0,008 and 0,044 respectively). According to post hoc test, the VAI, TG and HDL-C were significantly different between Group NSNA and SA (p values were 0,001; 0,004 and 0,035 respectively), additionally VAI and TG were significantly different between the Group S and Group SA (p values were 0,004 and 0,005 respectively). There was no significant correlation between cigarettes smoked per years and VAI in smokers. The rise of VAI is associated with both alone alcohol intake and smoking and alcohol intake together. Higher VAI is due to higher TG and lower HDL-C. In case of absence of both smoking and alcohol intake, VAI may be lower. However, non-elevated VAI may be seen in smokers due to lower TG.
    Sylwan 01/2015; 59(1):73-78. · 0.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role that meal pattern plays in weight regulation is a popular topic of scientific and common debate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between meal timing with caloric intake and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that latemeal timing and eating closer to sleep onset time would be associated with greater energy intake and higher BMI. Participants included 59 individuals recruited from the community. Rest/activity patterns were assessed using seven days of wrist actigraphy, and caloric intake was evaluated using seven days of diet logs. Results demonstrated that the timing of meals was associated with overall energy intake but not with BMI. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep duration, and timing; eating more frequently, later timing of the last meal, and a shorter duration between last meal and sleep onset predicted higher total caloric intake. In a mediational model, eating frequency explained the relationship between eating closer to sleep onset and total caloric intake. Results suggest that later relative timing of meals, particularly eating close to sleep, could lead to weight gain due to a greater number of eating occasions and higher total daily caloric intake. These findings have important implications for the development of novel, time-based interventions for weight management.
    Nutrition Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.09.010 · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Failure to attain fat balance may contribute to obesity development even without excessive energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary macronutrient distribution with abdominal adiposity in adolescents and to evaluate whether these relationships were attenuated by physical activity. A total of 224 Spanish adolescents (51% females, 14.9 ± 1.2 years) were included in the study. Abdominal adiposity in three regions, truncal and total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and thereafter FM index (FMI = FM/height(2)) and FMI/LMI ratio were calculated. The energy derived from fat intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Total physical activity (PA) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA were objectively measured by accelerometry. We observed that the percent of energy derived from fat intake was significantly associated with FMI and FMI/LMI ratio (Ps = 0.001) and greater amounts of truncal (P = 0.001) and abdominal adiposity in the three regions regardless of age, sex and height (all P ≤ 0.005). The strength of the relationships was not substantially altered by further adjustment for PA, vigorous PA or moderate-to-vigorous PA (Ps ≤ 0.005). The percent of energy derived from dietary fat intake is strongly and linearly associated with total, truncal and abdominal adiposity independently of PA in adolescents. These observations implicate the amount of dietary fat intake as a specific risk factor in the excess of abdominal adiposity in adolescence.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2013; 33(5). DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.10.008 · 3.27 Impact Factor


Available from
Jun 3, 2014