Alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns are related to general and central adiposity

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
European journal of clinical nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 11/2011; 66(3):305-13. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2011.189
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alcohol and dietary fat have high energy densities and may therefore be related to body weight and fat deposition. We studied associations between alcohol and macronutrient intake patterns and general and central adiposity.
A population-based cross-sectional study of 524 men and 611 women. The participants answered a dietary questionnaire describing habitual food consumption including intake of alcoholic beverages. Macronutrient intake was analysed in relation to anthropometric measures and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry determined body fat.
In women, total alcohol intake was negatively associated with body fat percentage (β:-0.67, P<0.01). In men, total alcohol intake was positively associated with sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) (β: 0.28, P=0.01). In addition, positive associations were found between intake of alcohol from spirits and body fat percentage (β: 1.17, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.52, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: 2.29, P=0.01). In men, protein intake was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) (β: 0.03, P=0.001), body fat percentage (β: 0.04, P<0.05), SAD (β: 0.02, P=0.01) and waist circumference (β: 0.09, P<0.01). Also in men only, negative associations between fat intake and BMI (β: -0.03, P<0.01), SAD (β: -0.02, P<0.05) and waist circumference (β: -0.05, P<0.05) were found.
Alcohol intake was inversely associated to relative body fat in women whereas spirits consumption was positively related to central and general obesity in men. Macronutrient intakes, particularly protein and fat, were differently associated with obesity indicators in men versus women. This may reflect a differential effect by gender, or differential obesity related reporting errors in men and women.

Download full-text


Available from: Martin Brandhagen, Feb 26, 2014
31 Reads
  • Source
    • "Alcohol intake is one of the top five risk factors for global burden of disease, particularly in developed nations, and poses increased risk for allcause mortality (Di Castelnuovo et al., 2006). The effects of smoking and alcohol intake on some obesity indices and biochemical parameters have been demonstrated in previous studies (Hata and Nakajima, 2000; Xu et al., 2007; Brandhagen et al., 2012; Slagter et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), serum triglyceride (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are evaluated together in calculation of visceral adiposity index (VAI), is a newer described index. We aimed to investigate the relationships of smoking and/or alcohol intake and VAI in healthy adult men in this study. For this purpose 96 healthy adult men were included to the study and divided into four groups; 52 both non-smokers and non-drinkers (Group NSNA), 21 smokers (Group S), 9 drinkers (Group A) and 14 both smoker and drinker (Group SA). Serum concentrations TG and HDL-C, body weight and waist circumference were measured, then BMI and VAI were calculated. VAI, TG and HDL-C were significantly different between the groups (p values were 0.002; 0.008 and 0.044 respectively). VAI, TG and HDL-C were significantly different between Group NSNA and SA (p values were 0.001; 0.004 and 0.035 respectively). There was no significant correlation between cigarettes smoked per years and VAI in smokers. The rise of VAI is associated with both alone alcohol intake and smoking and alcohol intake together. VAI may be lower, in case of absence of both smoking and drinking, non-elevated VAI may be seen in smokers due to lower TG.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep timing and macronutrient intake as an approach towards better understanding of how sleep and eating affect weight regulation. Fifty-two volunteers (25 women) completed 7days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. "Average sleepers" (56%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep <5:30am and "late sleepers" (44%) were defined as having a midpoint of sleep⩾5:30am. Data were analyzed using t-tests, correlations and regression. Late sleepers consumed a greater amount of protein fat and carbohydrates in the evening (defined as after 8:00pm) but less fat in the 4h before sleep. Total protein, protein, carbohydrate, and fat consumed after 8:00pm, protein consumed within 4h of sleep as well as the percentage of fat consumed after 8:00 were associated with higher BMI. The amount of protein and carbohydrates consumed within 4h of sleep and the amount and percentage of carbohydrate and fat consumed after 8:00pm were associated with greater total calories. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, sleep timing and duration, protein consumed 4h before sleep was associated with BMI; carbohydrates consumed after 8pm, protein and carbohydrates consumed 4h before sleep were associated with higher total calories. Results indicate that evening intake of macronutrients and intake before sleep are not synonymous, particularly among late sleepers. Eating in the evening or before sleep may predispose individuals to weight gain through higher total calories.
    Appetite 10/2012; 60(1). DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.026 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Failure to attain fat balance may contribute to obesity development even without excessive energy intake. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of dietary macronutrient distribution with abdominal adiposity in adolescents and to evaluate whether these relationships were attenuated by physical activity. A total of 224 Spanish adolescents (51% females, 14.9 ± 1.2 years) were included in the study. Abdominal adiposity in three regions, truncal and total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and thereafter FM index (FMI = FM/height(2)) and FMI/LMI ratio were calculated. The energy derived from fat intake was assessed by two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. Total physical activity (PA) and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA were objectively measured by accelerometry. We observed that the percent of energy derived from fat intake was significantly associated with FMI and FMI/LMI ratio (Ps = 0.001) and greater amounts of truncal (P = 0.001) and abdominal adiposity in the three regions regardless of age, sex and height (all P ≤ 0.005). The strength of the relationships was not substantially altered by further adjustment for PA, vigorous PA or moderate-to-vigorous PA (Ps ≤ 0.005). The percent of energy derived from dietary fat intake is strongly and linearly associated with total, truncal and abdominal adiposity independently of PA in adolescents. These observations implicate the amount of dietary fat intake as a specific risk factor in the excess of abdominal adiposity in adolescence.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2013; 33(5). DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2013.10.008 · 4.48 Impact Factor
Show more