Galantamine elicits neuroprotection by inhibiting iNOS, NADPH oxidase and ROS in hippocampal slices stressed with anoxia/reoxygenation

Instituto Teófilo Hernando, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.
Neuropharmacology (Impact Factor: 5.11). 11/2011; 62(2):1082-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.10.022
Source: PubMed


Galantamine is a drug currently used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD); in this group of patients it has been observed that concomitant ischemic brain injury can accelerate their cognitive deficit. We have previously shown that galantamine can afford neuroprotection on in vitro and in vivo models related to brain ischemia. In this context, this study was planned to investigate the intracellular signaling pathways implicated in the protective effect of galantamine on an in vitro brain ischemia-reperfusion model, namely rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation. Galantamine protected hippocampal slices subjected to OGD in a concentration-dependent manner; at 15 μM, cell death was reduced to almost control levels. The neuroprotective effects of galantamine were reverted by mecamylamine and AG490, but not by atropine, indicating that nicotinic receptors and Jak2 participated in this action. Galantamine also prevented p65 translocation into the nucleus induced by OGD; this effect was also linked to nicotinic receptors and Jak2. Furthermore, galantamine reduced iNOS induction and production of NO caused by OGD via Jak2. ROS production by NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation was also inhibited by galantamine. In conclusion, galantamine afforded neuroprotection under OGD-reoxygenation conditions by activating a signaling pathway that involves nicotinic receptors, Jak2 and the consequent inhibition of NOX and NFκB/iNOS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

Download full-text


Available from: Maria Dolores Martin-de-Saavedra, Feb 07, 2015
  • Source
    • "NADPH oxidase (NOX) is one of the main contributors to such excessive ROS production. Another contributor to ROS generation is nitric oxide (NO), generated by inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) (Egea et al., 2012). Stopping the ischemic cascade by targeting its components is one potential strategy for acute stroke treatment, known as the neuroprotection strategy. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stopping the ischemic cascade by targeting its components is a potential strategy for acute ischemic stroke treatment. During ischemia and especially over reperfusion, oxidative stress plays a major role in causing neuronal cell death. Melatonin has been previously reported to provide neuroprotective effects in in vivo models of stroke by a mechanism that implicates melatonin receptors. In this context, this study was planned to test the potential neuroprotective effects of the novel melatonin MT1/MT2 receptor agonist, Neu-P11, against brain ischemia in in vitro and in vivo models, and to elucidate its underlying mechanism of action. Neu-P11 proved to be a good antioxidant, to protect against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and oxygen and glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices, and to reduce infarct volume in an in vivo stroke model. Regarding its mechanism of action, the protective effect of Neu-P11 was reverted by luzindole (melatonin receptor antagonist), AG490 (JAK2 inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3/AKT inhibitor) and PD98059 (MEK/ERK1/2 inhibitor). In conclusion, Neu-P11 affords neuroprotection against brain ischemia in in vitro and in vivo models by activating a pro-survival signaling pathway that involves melatonin receptors, JAK/STAT, PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK1/2. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropharmacology 07/2015; 99. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.07.014 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The objective of the present study is to compile a comprehensive database from natural herbs in which the key constituents have been chemically characterized. It was inspired by the fact that the natural AChEI, galantamine, the FDA approved drug to treat mild-to-moderate AD, is a natural alkaloid that has only mild AChEI activity but strong neuroprotective efficacy [19]. Using this database, we have successfully identified some groups of phytochemicals that have mild AChEI activity but showed very promising neuroprotection in neuronal cell cultures induced by oxidative damages. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are prominent alternative in current clinical treatment for AD patients. Therefore, there is a continued need to search for novel AChEIs with good clinical efficacy and less side effects. By using our in-house natural product database and AutoDock Vina as a tool in docking study, we have identified twelve phytochemicals (emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol, and rhein in Rhei Radix Et Rhizoma; xanthotoxin, phellopterin, alloisoimperatorin, and imperatorin in Angelicae dahuricae Radix; shikonin, acetylshikonin, isovalerylshikonin, and β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin in Arnebiae Radix) as candidates of AChEIs that were not previously reported in the literature. In addition to AChEI activity, a series of cell-based experiments were conducted for the investigation of their neuroprotective activities. We found that acetylshikonin and its derivatives prevented apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide in human and rat neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells at 10 μM. We showed that acetylshikonin exhibited the most potent antiapoptosis activity through the inhibition of the generation of reactive oxygen species as well as protection of the loss of mitochondria membrane potential. Furthermore, we identified for the first time that the upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 by acetylshikonin is a key step mediating its antiapoptotic activity from oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013:937370. DOI:10.1155/2013/937370 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a key pathologic factor in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases (AD, PD). The failure of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants in clinical trials pinpoints an urgent need to identify and to block major sources of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. As a major superoxide-producing enzyme complex in activated phagocytes, phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX) is essential for host defense. However, recent preclinical evidence has underscored a pivotal role of overactivated PHOX in chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Deficiency in PHOX subunits mitigates neuronal damage induced by diverse insults/stresses relevant to neurodegenerative diseases. More importantly, suppression of PHOX activity correlates with reduced neuronal impairment in models of neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery of PHOX and non-phagocyte NADPH oxidases in astroglia and neurons further reinforces the crucial role of NADPH oxidases in oxidative stress-mediated chronic neurodegeneration. Thus, proper modulation of NADPH oxidase activity might hold therapeutic potential for currently incurable neurodegenerative diseases.
    Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 04/2012; 33(6):295-303. DOI:10.1016/ · 11.54 Impact Factor
Show more