A Potential Role of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Anterior Insula in Cognitive Control, Brain Rhythms, and Event-Related Potentials

Experimental Psychology, University of Groningen Groningen, Netherlands.
Frontiers in Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.8). 11/2011; 2(330):330. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00330
Source: PubMed


IN THE PRESENT PAPER, WE REVIEW EVIDENCE FOR OF A MODEL IN WHICH THE INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS/ANTERIOR INSULA (IFG/AI) AREA IS INVOLVED IN ELABORATE ATTENTIONAL AND WORKING MEMORY PROCESSING AND WE PRESENT THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THIS PROCESSING MAY TAKE DIFFERENT FORMS AND MAY HAVE DIFFERENT EFFECTS, DEPENDING ON THE TASK AT HAND: (1) it may facilitate fast and accurate responding, or (2) it may cause slow responding when prolonged elaborate processing is required to increase accuracy of responding, or (3) it may interfere with accuracy and speed of next-trial (for instance, post-error) performance when prolonged elaborate processing interferes with processing of the next stimulus. We present our viewpoint that ventrolateral corticolimbic control pathways, including the IFG/AI, and mediodorsal corticolimbic control pathways, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex areas, play partly separable, but interacting roles in adaptive behavior in environmental conditions that differ in the level of predictability: compared to dorsal feed-forward control, the ventral corticolimbic control pathways implement control over actions through higher responsiveness to momentary environmental stimuli. This latter control mode is associated with an attentional focus on stimuli that are urgent or close in time and space, while the former control mode is associated with a broader, more global focus in time and space. Both control pathways have developed extensively through evolution, and both developed their own "cognitive controls," such that neither one can be properly described as purely "cognitive" or "emotional." We discuss literature that suggests that the role of IFG/AI in top-down control is reflected in cortical rhythms and event-related potentials. Together, the literature suggests that the IFG/AI is an important node in brain networks that control cognitive and emotional processing and behavior.

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    • ", Menon and Uddin , 2010 ; Nelson et al . , 2010 ; Tops and Boksem , 2011 ) , the insula has been shown to be sensitive to salient events ( Menon and Uddin , 2010 ) ; this finding together with its strong connectivity to the motor cortex ( Ackermann and Riecker , 2004 ) , argue in favor of a particularly important role of the insula when trying to attain native - like accent . The sensitivity to distinct accent features coupled with access to motor programming structures allows for feedback and feed - forward mechanisms at the core of L2 accent production . "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: If ever attained, adopting native-like accent is achieved late in the learning process. Resemblance between L2 and mother tongue can facilitate L2 learning. In particular, cognates (phonologically and semantically similar words across languages), offer the opportunity to examine the issue of foreign accent in quite a unique manner. Methods: Twelve Spanish speaking (L1) adults learnt French (L2) cognates and practiced their native-like pronunciation by means of a computerized method. After consolidation, they were tested on L1 and L2 oral picture- naming during fMRI scanning. Results and Discussion: The results of the present study show that there is a specific impact of accent on brain activation, even if L2 words are cognates, and belong to a pair of closely related languages. Results point that the insula is a key component of accent processing, which is in line with reports from patients with foreign accent syndrome following damage to the insula (e.g., Katz et al., 2012; Moreno-Torres et al., 2013; Tomasino et al., 2013), and healthy L2 learners (Chee et al., 2004). Thus, the left insula has been consistently related to the integration of attentional and working memory abilities, together with fine-tuning of motor programming to achieve optimal articulation.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11/2015; 9(288). DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00587 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    • "With the addition of emotional stimuli, the motor task presumably required greater cooperation between stimulus-driven and goal-directed processing, where the IFG is considered to lie at the intersection (Hampshire et al., 2009). This cortical region may thus implement rapid emotion-action regulation mechanisms; through increased inhibitory control signals, the rIFG may alert the motor system and PAG, which could attenuate force decay in our task, and more generally, alter ongoing action in order to respond adaptively to behaviourally salient information (Tops and Boksem, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Emotions are considered to modulate action readiness. Previous studies have demonstrated increased force production following exposure to emotionally arousing visual stimuli; however the neural mechanisms underlying how precise force output is controlled within varying emotional contexts remain poorly understood. To identify the neural correlates of emotion-modulated motor behaviour, twenty-two participants produced a submaximal isometric precision-grip contraction while viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral or blank images (without visual feedback of force output). Force magnitude was continuously recorded together with change in brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Viewing unpleasant images resulted in reduced force decay during force maintenance as compared with pleasant, neutral and blank images. Subjective valence and arousal ratings significantly predicted force production during maintenance. Neuroimaging revealed that negative valence and its interaction with force output correlated with increased activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), while arousal was associated with amygdala and periaqueductal grey (PAG) activation. Force maintenance alone was correlated with cerebellar activity. These data demonstrate a valence-driven modulation of force output, mediated by a cortico-subcortical network involving rIFG and PAG. These findings are consistent with engagement of motor pathways associated with aversive motivation, eliciting defensive behaviour and action preparedness in response to negative emotional signals.
    NeuroImage 09/2015; 124(Pt A). DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.09.029 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "It has been suggested that vestibular integration in this area contributes to the interoceptive perception of the self ( Lopez and Blanke , 2011 ) . Anterior insula has also been implicated in imaging studies of rhythm perception , particularly for non - regular unpredictable rhythms ( Grahn and Rowe , 2013 ) , and may be part of a wider region , including inferior frontal gyrus , which forms a ventrolateral corticolimbic process for switching between internally and externally oriented control ( Tops and Boksem , 2011 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the "dance habit"; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 09/2015; 9:444. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00444 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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