Effects of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange (BIG) 1 and KANK1 proteins on cell polarity and directed migration during wound healing.

Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2011; 108(48):19228-33. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1117011108
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (BIG) 1 activates class I ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) by accelerating the replacement of bound GDP with GTP to initiate recruitment of coat proteins for membrane vesicle formation. Among proteins that interact with BIG1, kinesin family member 21A (KIF21A), a plus-end-directed motor protein, moves cargo away from the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) on microtubules. Because KANK1, a protein containing N-terminal KN, C-terminal ankyrin-repeat, and intervening coiled-coil domains, has multiple actions in cells and also interacts with KIF21A, we explored a possible interaction between it and BIG1. We obtained evidence for a functional and physical association between these proteins, and found that the effects of BIG1 and KANK1 depletion on cell migration in wound-healing assays were remarkably similar. Treatment of cells with BIG1- or KANK1-specific siRNA interfered significantly with directed cell migration and initial orientation of Golgi/MTOC toward the leading edge, which was not mimicked by KIF21A depletion. Although colocalization of overexpressed KANK1 and endogenous BIG1 in HeLa cells was not clear microscopically, their reciprocal immunoprecipitation (IP) is compatible with the presence of small percentages of each protein in the same complexes. Depletion or overexpression of BIG1 protein appeared not to affect KANK1 distribution. Our data identify actions of both BIG1 and KANK1 in regulating cell polarity during directed migration; these actions are consistent with the presence of both BIG1 and KANK1 in dynamic multimolecular complexes that maintain Golgi/MTOC orientation, differ from those that might contain all three proteins (BIG1, KIF21A, and KANK1), and function in directed transport along microtubules.

Download full-text


Available from: Chun-Chun Li, Feb 16, 2014
  • Source
    • "Many cancer-related genes have been found in renal cancer, including a multi-drug resistance gene (Walsh et al., 2009), anti-apoptotic genes (Bilim et al., 2009), and radiation resistant components (Kransny et al., 2010). The most characteristic genomic structure in renal cancer is the VHL-related hypoxia-inducible factor gene and its cascades shown in hereditary RCC and sporadic RCC cases (Linehan et al., 2011). The down-regulation in expression of Kank1, our main theme, was also found from the study of renal cancer and normal renal tubular cells (Sarkar et al., 2002), as we mentioned in other sections. "
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) is a rare inherited strabismus syndrome characterized by non-progressive ophthalmoplegia. We previously identified that CFEOM1 results from heterozygous missense mutations in KIF21A, which encodes a kinesin motor protein. Here we evaluate the expression pattern of KIF21A in human brain and muscles of control and CFEOM1 patients, and during human and mouse embryonic development. KIF21A is expressed in the cell bodies, axons, and dendrites of many neuronal populations including those in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and motor neurons of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nuclei from early development into maturity, and its spatial distribution is not altered in the CFEOM1 tissues available for study. Multiple splice isoforms of KIF21A are identified in human fetal brain, but none of the reported CFEOM1 mutations are located in or near the alternatively spliced exons. KIF21A immunoreactivity is also observed in extraocular and skeletal muscle biopsies of control and CFEOM1 patients, where it co-localizes with triadin, a marker of the excitation-contractile coupling system. The diffuse and widespread expression of KIF21A in the developing human and mouse central and peripheral nervous system as well as in extraocular muscle does not account for the restricted ocular phenotype observed in CFEOM1, nor does it permit the formal exclusion of a myogenic etiology based on expression patterns alone.
    Gene Expression Patterns 03/2012; 12(5-6):180-8. DOI:10.1016/j.gep.2012.03.003 · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The integrin α6β4 is defined as an adhesion receptor for laminins. Referred to as 'β4', this integrin plays a key role in the progression of various carcinomas through its ability to orchestrate key signal transduction events and promote cell motility. To identify novel downstream effectors of β4 function in breast cancer, microRNAs (miRNAs) were examined because of their extensive links to tumorigenesis and their ability to regulate gene expression globally. Two breast carcinoma cell lines and a collection of invasive breast carcinomas with varying β4 expression were used to assess the effect of this integrin on miRNA expression. A novel miRNA microarray analysis termed quantitative Nuclease Protection Assay (qNPA) revealed that β4 expression can significantly alter miRNA expression and identified two miRNA families, miR-25/32/92abc/363/363-3p/367 and miR-99ab/100, that are consistently downregulated by expression of this integrin. Analysis of published Affymetrix GeneChip data identified 54 common targets of miR-92ab and miR-99ab/100 within the subset of β4-regulated mRNAs, revealing several genes known to be key components of β4-regulated signaling cascades and effectors of cell motility. Gene ontology classification identified an enrichment in genes associated with cell migration within this population. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis of all β4-regulated mRNAs revealed an enrichment in targets belonging to distinct miRNA families, including miR-92ab and others identified by our initial array analyses. The results obtained in this study provide the first example of an integrin globally impacting miRNA expression and provide evidence that select miRNA families collectively target genes important in executing β4-mediated cell motility.
    Biology Open 07/2012; 1(7):658-66. DOI:10.1242/bio.20121628 · 2.42 Impact Factor
Show more