Article

Solvent exposures and Parkinson disease risk in twins.

The Parkinson's Institute, 675 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085, USA.
Annals of Neurology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 11/2011; 71(6):776-84. DOI: 10.1002/ana.22629
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several case reports have linked solvent exposure to Parkinson disease (PD), but few studies have assessed associations with specific agents using an analytic epidemiologic design. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to specific solvents is associated with PD risk using a discordant twin pair design.
Ninety-nine twin pairs discordant for PD ascertained from the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council World War II Veteran Twins Cohort were interviewed regarding lifetime occupations and hobbies using detailed job task-specific questionnaires. Exposures to 6 specific solvents selected a priori were estimated by expert raters unaware of case status.
Ever exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) was associated with significantly increased risk of PD (odds ratio [OR], 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-33; p = 0.034), and exposure to perchloroethylene (PERC) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) tended toward significance (respectively: OR, 10.5; 95% CI, 0.97-113; p = 0.053; OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.9-6.1; p = 0.088). Results were similar for estimates of exposure duration and cumulative lifetime exposure.
Exposure to specific solvents may increase risk of PD. TCE is the most common organic contaminant in groundwater, and PERC and CCl(4) are also ubiquitous in the environment. Our findings require replication in other populations with well-characterized exposures, but the potential public health implications are substantial.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
143 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined health outcomes among 34,494 workers employed at a microelectronics and business machine facility 1969-2001. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized incidence ratios were used to evaluate health outcomes in the cohort and Cox regression modeling to evaluate relations between scores for occupational exposures and outcomes of a priori interest. Just over 17% of the cohort (5,966 people) had died through 2009. All cause, all cancer, and many cause-specific SMRs showed statistically significant deficits. In hourly males, SMRs were significantly elevated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rectal cancer. Salaried males had excess testicular cancer incidence. Pleural cancer and mesothelioma excesses were observed in workers hired before 1969, but no available records substantiate use of asbestos in manufacturing processes. A positive, statistically significant relation was observed between exposure scores for tetrachloroethylene and nervous system diseases. Few significant exposure-outcome relations were observed, but risks from occupational exposures cannot be ruled out due to data limitations and the relative youth of the cohort. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 12/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in the 1950s, Parkinson's disease (PD) research has generated a rich and complex body of knowledge, revealing PD to be an age-related multifactorial disease, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The tremendous complexity of the disease is increased by a non-linear progression of the pathogenesis between molecular, cellular, and organic systems. In this mini-review, we explore the complexity of PD and propose a systems-based approach, organizing the available information around cellular disease hallmarks. We encourage our peers to adopt this cell-based view with the aim of improving communication in interdisciplinary research endeavors targeting the molecular events, modulatory cell-to-cell signaling pathways, and emerging clinical phenotypes related to PD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEBS Journal 05/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease, the most common of the late-life neurodegenerative disorders, are in most cases thought to have complex etiologies. Common features among these disorders include insidious onset, pathological findings of protein aggregates and selected neuronal degeneration, and resulting characteristic clinical syndromes. The number of elders in the United States, including aging veterans, is increasing. Investigation of causes and preventive interventions for neurodegenerative disorders is increasingly relevant. Recent epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that exposures years or decades before diagnosis can trigger the processes that ultimately result in a neurodegenerative disease. If this is correct, preventive measures may be needed in midlife or earlier. This article will focus on putative risk factors relevant to military service.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 06/2014; 10(3):S213–S225. · 17.47 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
47 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014