Chemometric study on the trace metal accumulation in the sediments of the Cochin EstuaryaEuro center dot Southwest coast of India

Department of Chemical Oceanography, School of Marine Sciences, CUSAT, Kochi, 682516, India, .
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.68). 11/2011; 184(10):6261-79. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2418-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The distribution and accumulation of trace metals in the sediments of the Cochin estuary during the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods were investigated. Sediment samples from 14 locations were collected and analysed for the metal contents (Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb), organic carbon, total nitrogen, total sulphur and grain size. The data were processed using statistical tools like correlation, factor and cluster analysis. The study revealed an enrichment of Cd and Zn in the study area particularly at station 2, which is confirmed by enrichment factor, contamination factor and geoaccumulation index. The factor analysis revealed that the source of Cd and Zn may be same. The study indicated that the spatial variation for the metals like Mg, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were predominant unlike Mn which shows a temporal variation. The strong association of trace metals with Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides are prominent along the Cochin estuary. The anthropogenic inputs of industrial effluents mainly control the trace metals enrichment in the Cochin estuary.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the spatial distribution of various organochlorine insecticides (OCIs) and heavy metals in both sediment and a bivalve, Villorita cyprinoides var. Cochinensis, collected from three pristine areas of Lake Vembanad. The detected concentrations of OCIs in the bivalve and sediment are in the order DDT > Heptachlor > BHC and BHC > DDD > heptachlor, respectively. However the DDT concentration (28.5 ng/g) in the bivalve at Chambakkara exceeded the limit suggested by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NWQAP) and indicated an anthropogenic input source for the parent DDT. The maximum potential contamination indices for Zn and Ni in the bivalve were 267.8 mg/kg and 22.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values of sediment indicated that Cd showed high pollution status and the Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor value of heavy metals suggested that Zn, Cu, and Cd were bioaccumulated in the bivalve's tissue. The concentrations of Zn and Cd were above the threshold levels and regarded as harmful according to the international standard for metals in mollusc compiled by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Therefore, they create great health risk for mussel consumers.
    Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 09/2014; 21(6):1-17. DOI:10.1080/10807039.2014.960722 · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sediments are the particulate matter that are transported by the flow of water and eventually get deposited at the bottom of water bodies, such as oceans, rivers, lagoons, and so forth. The deposition of these materials due to continued intervention of natural as well as anthropogenic activities is a serious concern as the storage capacity (or health) of the system is reduced or otherwise affected. Keeping in view the emerging challenges associated with proper disposal and subsequent utilization of sediments, as a manmade resource, their extraction from such locations becomes necessary. Hence, it is essential to characterize the sediments in order to devise strategies to exploit them as a manmade resource in the best possible manner. With this in view, this article highlights the importance of different attributes and aspects of the sediments (viz., physical, chemical, morphological, geotechnical, toxicological, and microbial characteristics) deposited in the water bodies that will help in assessing their potential as a substitute material to natural resources.
    Marine Georesources and Geotechnology 09/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.1080/1064119X.2014.953232 · 0.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Cochin Backwaters in India are part of the Vembanad-Kol system, which is a protected wetland and one of the largest estuarine ecosystems in South Asia. The backwaters are a major supplier of fisheries resources and are developed as tourist destination. Periyar River discharges into the northern arm of the system and receives effluents from chemical, petrochemical and metal processing industries which release huge amounts of wastewaters after little treatment. We investigated water and sediment contamination in the industrial vicinity and at one station further away including organic and inorganic contaminants. In total 83 organic contaminants were found, e.g. well known priority pollutants such as endosulfan, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane and their metabolites, which likely stem from the industrial manufacturing of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, several benzothiazole, dibenzylamine and dicyclohexylamine derivatives were detected, which indicated inputs from rubber producing facilities. Several of these compounds have not been reported as environmental contaminants so far. A comparison of organic contaminant and trace hazardous element concentrations in sediments with reported sediment quality guidelines revealed that adverse effects on benthic species are likely at all stations. The chemical assessment was combined with an investigation of macrobenthic diversity and community composition. Benthic organisms were completely lacking at the site with the highest trace hazardous element concentrations. Highest species numbers, diversity indices and abundances were recorded at the station with the greatest distance to the industrial area. Filter feeders were nearly completely lacking, probably leading to an impairment of the filter function in this area. This study shows that a combination of chemical and biological methods is an innovative approach to achieve a comprehensive characterization of industrial contamination, to evaluate associated risks for bottom dwelling consumers regarding sediment quality guidelines, and to observe related adverse effects on the benthic community directly in the field.
    Science of The Total Environment 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.034 · 3.16 Impact Factor