Temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, in combination with lower-dose clofarabine as salvage therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: results of a phase II GIMEMA study (AML-1107).
ABSTRACT The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This study assessed the combination of temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, and lower-dose clofarabine as salvage therapy in older patients with AML. Induction consisted of clofarabine 20mg/m(2) on days 1-5 and temsirolimus 25mg (flat dose) on days 1, 8 and 15. Patients achieving complete remission with (CR) or without (CRi) full haematological recovery could receive monthly temsirolimus maintenance. In 53 evaluable patients, the overall remission rate (ORR) was 21% (8% CR, 13% CRi). Median disease-free survival was 3·5months, and median overall survival was 4months (9·1months for responders). The most common non-haematological severe adverse events included infection (48%), febrile neutropenia (34%) and transaminitis (11%). The 30-d all-cause induction mortality was 13%. Laboratory data from 25 patients demonstrated that a >50%in vivo inhibition of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation was highly correlated with response rate (75% with inhibition versus 0% without inhibition; P=0·0001), suggesting that targeting the mTOR pathway is clinically relevant. The acceptable safety profile and the predictive value of target inhibition encourage further investigation of this novel regimen.
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ABSTRACT: The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) serine threonine kinase is involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis and angiogenesis. mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin, or analogues such as CCI-779, RAD001, AP23573), which have been shown to have a potent anti-neoplastic effect in many solid tumor models, are now being used in clinical trials. Recent data have shown that the mTOR pathway is also aberrantly activated in hematological malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This disease still has a bad prognosis and new therapeutic strategies are required. Rapamycin, used at low concentrations, induces the profound inhibition of AML cell clonogenic properties in 60% of cases while sparing their normal counterparts. Moreover, clinical responses have been achieved in poor-risk AML patients. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms of mTOR activation, the mechanisms involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation by rapamycin, the possible resistance mechanisms and ways of improving rapamycin efficacy in the context of AML.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12/2005; 4(11):1540-9. · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia remains a major challenge for the leukemia community. Although several approaches have been tested in phase II study designs, few comparative data exist to guide treatment choices. We searched the recent literature in Medline, EMBASE and BIOSIS, and abstracts from the American Society of Hematology and American Society of Clinical Oncology published between 2005 and 2007. We reviewed each report to identify studies that used a phase II or III design and that included a majority of adults with non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia described as 'relapsed' or 'refractory'. Several studies utilized novel cytotoxic chemotherapies, immunotherapies, epigenetic agents, and small molecule inhibitors. It is not possible to identify a single regimen or approach as the standard of care in relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia. New and promising approaches are being explored, however. Outcomes in patients treated for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia remain inadequate. Striking a balance between the treatment-related mortality associated with salvage therapies, response rates of salvage regimens, and the likelihood of long-term disease-free survival are critical in planning a treatment approach for the individual patient with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.Current Opinion in Hematology 04/2008; 15(2):108-14. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has become apparent that regulation of protein translation is an important determinant in controlling cell growth and leukemic transformation. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is often implicated in sensitivity and resistance to therapy. Dysregulated signaling through the PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathway is often the result of genetic alterations in critical components in this pathway as well as mutations at upstream growth factor receptors. Furthermore, this pathway is activated by autocrine transformation mechanisms. PTEN is a critical tumor suppressor gene and its dysregulation results in the activation of Akt. PTEN is often mutated, silenced and is often haploinsufficient. The mTOR complex1 (mTORC1) regulates the assembly of the eukaryotic initiation factor4F complex, which is critical for the translation of mRNAs that are important for cell growth, prevention of apoptosis and transformation. These mRNAs have long 5'-untranslated regions that are G+C rich, rendering them difficult to translate. Elevated mTORC1 activity promotes the translation of these mRNAs via the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. mTORC1 is a target of rapamycin and novel active-site inhibitors that directly target the TOR kinase activity. Although rapamycin and novel rapalogs are usually cytostatic and not cytotoxic for leukemic cells, novel inhibitors that target the kinase activities of PI3K and mTOR may prove more effective for leukemia therapy.Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 03/2011; 25(7):1064-79. · 8.30 Impact Factor