Huang YJ, Lynch SV. The emerging relationship between the airway microbiota and chronic respiratory disease: clinical implications

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Med Sci S357, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 12/2011; 5(6):809-21. DOI: 10.1586/ers.11.76
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Until recently, relationships between evidence of colonization or infection by specific microbial species and the development, persistence or exacerbation of pulmonary disease have informed our opinions of airway microbiology. However, recent applications of culture-independent tools for microbiome profiling have revealed a more diverse microbiota than previously recognized in the airways of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. New evidence indicates that the composition of airway microbiota differs in states of health and disease and with severity of symptoms and that the microbiota, as a collective entity, may contribute to pathophysiologic processes associated with chronic airway disease. Here, we review the evolution of airway microbiology studies of chronic pulmonary disease, focusing on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Building on evidence derived from traditional microbiological approaches and more recent culture-independent microbiome studies, we discuss the implications of recent findings on potential microbial determinants of respiratory health or disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Susan V Lynch, Sep 27, 2015
1 Follower
28 Reads
    • "As pioneers, Laurenzi et al. (1961), Pecora (1963), Austrian (1968) and also Murray et al. (2013), based on traditional culture-based methods, have revealed that ''the lungs are sterile organs'' (Austrian, 1968; Laurenzi et al., 1961; Murray et al., 2013; Pecora, 1963). On the other hand, other studies by Monso et al. (1999), Harris et al. (2007), Bousbia et al. (2010), Hilty et al. (2010), Charlson et al. (2011), Erb-Downward et al. (2011) and Huang et al. (2011), Sze et al. (2012), Duff et al. (2013), Garzoni et al. (2013), Rogers et al. (2013) and Segal et al. (2013) and Sze et al. (2014) supported the contradictory concept that lungs are not sterile using culture-independent methods based on genomics and metagenomics (Bousbia et al., 2010; Charlson et al., 2011; Duff et al., 2013; Erb-Downward et al., 2011; Garzoni et al., 2013; Harris et al., 2007; Hilty et al., 2010, Huang et al., 2011; Monso et al., 1999; Rogers et al., 2013; Segal et al., 2013; Sze et al., 2012, 2014). Thus, as listed in Table 1, different studies have resulted in distinct outcomes for and against the presence of lung microbiome. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concept of microbial content of the lung is still controversial. What make this more complicated are controversial results obtaining from different methodologies about lung microbiome and the definition of ‘‘lung sterility’’. Lungs may have very low bacteria but are not completely germ-free. Bacteria are constantly entering from the upper respiratory tract, but are then quickly being cleared. We can find bacterial DNA in the lungs, but it is much harder to ask about living bacteria. Here, we propose that if there is any trafficking of the microorganisms in the lung, it should be a ‘‘Transient But Not Resident (TBNR)’’ model. So, we speculate a "Yin Yang model" for the lung immune system and TBNR. Despite beneficial roles of microbiome on the development of lung immune system, any disruption and alteration in the microbiota composition of upper and lower airways may trigger or lead to several diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and mustard lung disease.
    Inhalation Toxicology 08/2015; DOI:10.3109/08958378.2015.1070220 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Recent studies have shown that an unhealthy status of the respiratory microbiome persists in high-risk populations, such as infants, the elderly and patients with COPD, CF or bronchiectasis , in whom the microbial communities are much less diversified than those found in healthy individuals [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32]. Diversity is a major factor that promotes system stability [33], loss of diversity thus lessens the protective effects of the microbiome and renders patients vulnerable to infection. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human pharyngeal microbiome, which resides at the juncture of digestive and respiratory tracts, may have an active role in the prevention of respiratory tract infections, similar to the actions of the intestinal microbiome against enteric infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the pharyngeal microbiome comprises an abundance of bacterial species that interact with the local epithelial and immune cells, and together, they form a unique micro-ecological system. Most of the microbial species in microbiomes are obligate symbionts constantly adapting to their unique surroundings. Indigenous commensal species are capable of both maintaining dominance and evoking host immune responses to eliminate invading species. Temporary damage to the pharyngeal microbiome due to the impaired local epithelia is also considered an important predisposing risk factor for infections. Therefore, reinforcement of microbiome homeostasis to prevent invasion of infection-prone species would provide a novel treatment strategy in addition to antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Hence continued research efforts on evaluating probiotic treatment and developing appropriate procedures are necessary to both prevent and treat respiratory infections.
    Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 06/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.1016/j.gpb.2014.06.001
  • Source
    • "It has been suggested that the fungal colonization could contribute to or trigger - as do other virus infections (HPV, CMV etc) - pathophysiologic processes associated with lung cancer [19]. However, while there is evidence of the involvement of specific fungal species in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [20,21] and cystic fibrosis (CF) [21-24], little is known of the airway fungal microbiota in the pathogenesis of lung cancer [19]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 02/2014; 14(1):22. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-14-22 · 2.40 Impact Factor
Show more