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Huang YJ, Lynch SV. The emerging relationship between the airway microbiota and chronic respiratory disease: clinical implications

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Avenue, Med Sci S357, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 12/2011; 5(6):809-21. DOI: 10.1586/ers.11.76
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Until recently, relationships between evidence of colonization or infection by specific microbial species and the development, persistence or exacerbation of pulmonary disease have informed our opinions of airway microbiology. However, recent applications of culture-independent tools for microbiome profiling have revealed a more diverse microbiota than previously recognized in the airways of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. New evidence indicates that the composition of airway microbiota differs in states of health and disease and with severity of symptoms and that the microbiota, as a collective entity, may contribute to pathophysiologic processes associated with chronic airway disease. Here, we review the evolution of airway microbiology studies of chronic pulmonary disease, focusing on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Building on evidence derived from traditional microbiological approaches and more recent culture-independent microbiome studies, we discuss the implications of recent findings on potential microbial determinants of respiratory health or disease.

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Available from: Susan V Lynch, Aug 30, 2015
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    • "Recent studies have shown that an unhealthy status of the respiratory microbiome persists in high-risk populations, such as infants, the elderly and patients with COPD, CF or bronchiectasis , in whom the microbial communities are much less diversified than those found in healthy individuals [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32]. Diversity is a major factor that promotes system stability [33], loss of diversity thus lessens the protective effects of the microbiome and renders patients vulnerable to infection. "
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    Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics 06/2014; 12(3). DOI:10.1016/j.gpb.2014.06.001
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    • "It has been suggested that the fungal colonization could contribute to or trigger - as do other virus infections (HPV, CMV etc) - pathophysiologic processes associated with lung cancer [19]. However, while there is evidence of the involvement of specific fungal species in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [20,21] and cystic fibrosis (CF) [21-24], little is known of the airway fungal microbiota in the pathogenesis of lung cancer [19]. "
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    • "Using microarray analysis, airway specimens have been analyzed from COPD patients who were being managed for severe respiratory exacerbations [104]. Therefore, a diverse bacterial community is documented to be present during pulmonary exacerbation in the setting of antibiotic administration [105]. Viral infections are detected in 10–15% of sputum sample in stable COPD patients and in 30–60% of patients with COPD exacerbation (62) with rhinoviruses and influenza viruses being most frequently associated with the exacerbations [106]. "
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