An exploration of Singaporean parental experiences in managing school-aged children's postoperative pain: a descriptive qualitative approach
ABSTRACT To enhance understanding of the experience of parents in managing their children's postoperative pain in Singapore.
Parents play a significant role in their hospitalised child's postoperative pain care. Their active involvement may contribute to accurate pain assessment and effective pain management for their child. However, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring the experience of parents involved in their children's postoperative pain management.
This study adopted a descriptive qualitative approach, which is situated in the interpretive paradigm.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data from 14 parents whose children were hospitalised in one of the three paediatric surgical wards in a hospital in Singapore in December 2009. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.
Three themes were identified: 'Actions used by parents to alleviate their child's postoperative pain', 'Factors influencing parents' management of their child's postoperative pain' and 'Parents' needs in the process of caring for their child's postoperative pain'. Parents used a range of non-pharmacological pain relief interventions for their child. Parental roles and expectations, bond between parent and child, support from nurses, family and own religious beliefs, as well as children's age and maturity level were factors which promoted parental participation, whereas parents' negative feelings, knowledge deficit and nurses' busy schedule were hindering factors. Parents expressed needs for more involvement in their child's care, adequate rest and information support from nurses.
This study highlights the importance of involving parents in their child's postoperative pain management. It provides evidence for health care professionals to pay attention to factors that may influence parental participation and, therefore, guide their practice.
Nurses need to provide parents with support and education to facilitate their roles and improve their child's postoperative pain management.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:<⁄span> Adverse health care events are injuries occurring as a result of patient care. Significant acute pain is often caused by medical and surgical procedures in children, and it has been argued that undermanaged pain should be considered to be an adverse event. Indicators are often used to identify other potential adverse events. There are currently no validated indicators for undertreated pediatric pain. OBJECTIVES:<⁄span> To develop a preliminary list of indicators of undermanaged pain in hospitalized pediatric patients. METHODS:<⁄span> The Delphi technique was used to survey experts in pediatric pain management and quality improvement. The first round used an electronic questionnaire to ask: "In your opinion, what indicators would signify that acute pain in a child has not been adequately controlled?" Responses were grouped together in semantically similar themes, providing a list of possible adverse event indicators. Using this list, an electronic questionnaire was developed for round 2 asking respondents to indicate the importance of each potential indicator. RESULTS:<⁄span> All but one indicator achieved a level of consensus ≥70%. Separate indicators emerged for postoperative and procedural pain. An additional distinction was made between indicators that could be identified by chart review and those requiring observation of practice and assessment from the child or parent. DISCUSSION: <⁄span>The adverse care indicators developed in the present study require further refinement. There is a need to test their clinical usability and to determine whether these indicators actually identify undermanaged pain in clinical practice. The present study is an important first step in identifying undermanaged pain in hospital and treating it as an adverse event. CONCLUSION:<⁄span> The adverse care indicators developed in the present study are the first step in conceptualizing mismanaged pain as an adverse event.18(5):e68-e74.
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ABSTRACT: Involving parents in children's pain management is essential to achieve optimal outcomes. Parents need to be equipped with sufficient knowledge and information. Only a limited number of studies have explored nurses' provision of parental guidance regarding the use of nonpharmacologic methods in children's pain management. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of providing preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods to parents, and how their demographics and perceived knowledge adequacy of these methods influence this guidance. A descriptive correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted to collect data from a convenience sample of 134 registered nurses working in seven pediatric wards of two public hospitals in Singapore. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. Most nurses provided various types of cognitive information to parents related to their children's surgery, whereas information about children's feelings was less often provided. Most nurses provided guidance to parents on positioning, breathing technique, comforting/reassurance, helping with activities of daily living, relaxation, and creating a comfortable environment. Nurses' provision of parental guidance on preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods was significantly different between subgroups of age, education, parent or not, and perceived knowledge adequacy of nonpharmacologic methods. Nurses' perceived knowledge adequacy was the main factor influencing their provision of parental guidance. More attention should be paid to nurses who are younger, have less working experience, and are not parents. There is a need to educate nurses about nonpharmacologic pain relief methods to optimize their provision of parental guidance.Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.03.002 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore postoperative pain management experiences among school-aged children. BACKGROUND: Ineffective postoperative pain management among children has been commonly reported. School-aged children are able to evaluate how their pain is managed and what their preferred strategies are. Most studies in pain management have adopted quantitative methods and have overlooked children's pain management experiences. DESIGN: This is a qualitative study using face-to-face interviews. METHODS: Data were collected from 15 school-aged children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore by in-depth interviews conducted between November 2010 and January 2011. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. RESULTS: Five themes were identified: children's self-directed actions to relieve their postoperative pain (e.g. using cognitive-behavioural methods of distraction and imagery, physical method of positioning, sleeping and drinking, seeking other people's help by informing parents and crying and using pain medications); children's perceptions of actions parents take for their postoperative pain relief (assessing pain, administering pain medications, using various cognitive-behavioural, physical methods and emotional support strategies, assisting in activities and alerting health professionals); children's perception of actions nurses take for their postoperative pain relief (administering medication, using cognitive-behavioural methods, emotional support strategies and helping with activities of daily living) and suggestions for parents (using distraction and presence) and nurses (administering medications, distraction and positioning) for their postoperative pain relief improvement. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributed to the existing knowledge about children's postoperative pain management based on their own experiences. Children, their parents and nurses used various strategies, including pain medication and non-pharmacological methods, especially distraction, for children's postoperative pain relief. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study provides evidence for health care professionals to consider using more pain relief strategies when caring for children postoperatively and provide guidance for children to practice these strategies.Journal of Clinical Nursing 01/2013; DOI:10.1111/jocn.12052 · 1.23 Impact Factor