Measurement of autophagy in cancer and correlation with histopathologic grading or clinical outcomes has been limited. Accordingly, we investigated LC3B as an autophagosome marker by analyzing nearly 1,400 tumors from 20 types of cancer, focusing on correlations with clinical outcomes in melanoma and breast cancer.
Staining protocols were developed for automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using antibodies versus LC3 isoform B (LC3B) and Ki-67. Clinically annotated breast and melanoma tissue microarrays (TMA) and a multitumor array were used. An AQUA program was developed to quantitate LC3B distribution in punctate and diffuse compartments of the cell.
LC3B staining was moderate to high in the large majority of tumors. The percentage of area occupied by punctate LC3B was elevated by 3- to 5-fold at high LC3B intensities. In breast cancer and melanoma TMAs, LC3B and Ki-67 showed strong correlations (P < 0.0001), and in multitumor TMAs, mitotic figures were most often seen in tumors with the highest LC3B expression (P < 0.002). In breast cancer, LC3B expression was elevated in node-positive versus node-negative primaries and associated with increased nuclear grade and shortened survival. In a melanoma TMA with no survival data, LC3B levels were highest in nodal, visceral, and cutaneous metastases.
The results reveal a common expression of LC3B in malignancy and support emerging evidence that autophagy plays a significant role in cancer progression. High LC3B was associated proliferation, invasion and metastasis, high nuclear grade, and worse outcome. Thus, autophagy presents a key target of therapeutic vulnerability in solid tumors.
"YTX activates different cell death types depending on the cellular model ( Korsnes , 2012 ) . Moreover , opposite effects in terms of cell viability were obtained after the treatment with YTX of the tumor K - 562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes ( Tobío et al . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yessotoxin (YTX) modulates cellular phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In this regard, opposite effects had been described in the tumor model K-562 cell line and fresh human lymphocytes in terms of cell viability, cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production and protein expression after YTX treatment. Studies in depth of the pathways activated by YTX in K-562 cell line, have demonstrated the activation of two different cell death types, apoptosis, and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the key role of type 4A PDE (PDE4A) in both pathways activated by YTX was demonstrated. Therefore, taking into account the differences between cellular lines and fresh cells, a study of cell death pathways activated by YTX in a non-tumor cell line with mitotic activity, was performed. The cellular model used was the lymphoblastoid cell line that represents a non-tumor model with normal apoptotic and mitotic machinery. In this context, cell viability and cell proliferation, expression of proteins involved in cell death activated by YTX and mitochondrial mass, were studied after the incubation with the toxin. Opposite to the tumor model, no cell death activation was observed in lymphoblastoid cell line in the presence of YTX. In this sense, variations in apoptosis hallmarks were not detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line after YTX incubation, whereas this type I of programmed cell death was observed in K-562 cells. On the other hand, autophagy cell death was triggered in this cellular line, while other autophagic process is suggested in lymphoblastoid cells. These YTX effects are related to PDE4A in both cellular lines. In addition, while cell death is triggered in K-562 cells after YTX treatment, in lymphoblastoid cells the toxin stops cellular proliferation. These results point to YTX as a specific toxic compound of tumor cells, since in the non-tumor lymphoblastoid cell line, no cell death hallmarks are observed.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 06/2015; 6:124. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00124 · 3.80 Impact Factor
"Thus these studies indicate that melanoma progression is coupled to alterations in the amount of autophagosomes as well as pro-autophagic proteins, supporting a dynamic role for autophagy in melanoma progression (see Fig. 3). Importantly, a high level of autophagy in melanoma patient's tumors is associated with a lower therapeutic response and a worse outcome, further supporting the relevance of autophagy as possible prognostic marker and suggesting autophagy as a therapeutic target in melanoma (Lazova et al., 2012; Ma et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy, or self-eating, is the most extensively studied lysosomal degradation pathway for the recycling of obsolete or damaged cytoplasmic materials, including proteins and organelles. Although this pathway was initially thought to function as trafficking system for ‘in bulk’ degradation by the lysosomes of cytoplasmic material, it is now widely appreciated that cargo selection by the autophagic machinery is a major process underlying the cytoprotective or –possibly- pro-death functions ascribed to this catabolic process. Indeed increasing evidence suggests that in mammalian cells the removal of dysfunctional or aged mitochondria occurs through a selective degradation pathway known as ‘mitophagy’. Due to the crucial role of mitochondria in energy metabolism, redox control and cell survival/death decision, deregulated mitophagy can potentially impact a variety of crucial cell autonomous and non-autonomous processes. Accumulating evidence indicates that during malignant transformation aggressive cancers hijack autophagy to preserve energy fitness and to acquire the plasticity required to adapt to the hostile microenvironment. However, whether and how mitophagy contributes to carcinogenesis, which pathways regulates this process in the cancer cells and how cancer cell-mitophagy impacts and modifies the tumor microenvironment and therapeutic responses, remain largely unanswered issues. In this review, we discuss novel paradigms and pathways regulating mitophagy in mammalian cells and the impact this process might have on one of the most dreadful human malignancies, melanoma.
"The immunohistochemical analysis of autophagy using LC3 as autophagosome marker recently emerges as a valuable technique for in situ detection of autophagy. Lazova and Han et al [17-19] detected autophagy in melanoma through LC3 immunohistochemistry and found that metastatic melanoma cells displayed high level of autophagy and the upregulated autophagy was strongly associated with melanoma metastasis. Further investigations in nearly 1400 tumors from 20 types of cancer revealed that punctate LC3 expression is a common feature of malignancy and high LC3 expression was associated with invasion and metastasis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an important adaptive survival mechanism, which has been postulated to be involved in cancer metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate autophagy in metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Immunohistochemical analysis of autophagic activity in metastatic and paired primary HCC tissues using LC3 as autophagosome marker was performed in samples from 216 HCC patients diagnosed with metastasis (including 158 intravascular, 42 intrabiliary, 8 lymph node, 4 bone and 4 lung metastases). Then a mouse model of pulmonary metastasis was established using a highly metastatic HCC cell line (HCCLM3). Autophagy in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors were analyzed by LC3 immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and western blot analysis. Further, mouse model of pulmonary metastasis and in vitro cell migration, invasion and detachment models were established using a stable GFP-LC3-expressing HCCLM3 cell line (HCCLM3-GFP-LC3). Autophagic alterations during metastatic colonization, migration, invasion and detachment were determined by GFP-LC3 analysis and western blot analysis.
LC3 immunohistochemistry of metastases and primary tumors from HCC patients revealed significantly higher LC3 expression in metastases than primary HCC, which suggested a higher level of autophagy in HCC metastases. Further immunohistochemical, TEM, western blot and in vivo GFP-LC3 analyses of lung metastases and primary tumors in mouse model of pulmonary metastasis confirmed that metastatic colonies displayed higher level of autophagy than primary tumors and the early metastatic colonies displayed highest level. The dynamic monitoring of autophagy in cell migration, invasion and detachment showed that autophagy did not significantly alter in those processes.
Autophagy is activated in metastatic colonization but not in invasion, migration and detachment of HCC cells. Autophagy may play a role in HCC metastasis via promoting metastatic colonization of HCC cells.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74407. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0074407 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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