Radiotherapy for early mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma according to the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG): the roles of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and involved-node radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT Cure rates of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are high, and avoidance of late complications and second malignancies have become increasingly important. This comparative treatment planning study analyzes to what extent target volume reduction to involved-node (IN) and intensity-modulated (IM) radiotherapy (RT), compared with involved-field (IF) and three-dimensional (3D) RT, can reduce doses to organs at risk (OAR).
Based on 20 computed tomography (CT) datasets of patients with early unfavorable mediastinal HL, we created treatment plans for 3D-RT and IMRT for both the IF and IN according to the guidelines of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). As OAR, we defined heart, lung, breasts, and spinal cord. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were evaluated for planning target volumes (PTVs) and OAR.
Average IF-PTV and IN-PTV were 1705 cm(3) and 1015 cm(3), respectively. Mean doses to the PTVs were almost identical for all plans. For IF-PTV/IN-PTV, conformity was better with IMRT and homogeneity was better with 3D-RT. Mean doses to the heart (17.94/9.19 Gy for 3D-RT and 13.76/7.42 Gy for IMRT) and spinal cord (23.93/13.78 Gy for 3D-RT and 19.16/11.55 Gy for IMRT) were reduced by IMRT, whereas mean doses to lung (10.62/8.57 Gy for 3D-RT and 12.77/9.64 Gy for IMRT) and breasts (left 4.37/3.42 Gy for 3D-RT and 6.04/4.59 Gy for IMRT, and right 2.30/1.63 Gy for 3D-RT and 5.37/3.53 Gy for IMRT) were increased. Volume exposed to high doses was smaller for IMRT, whereas volume exposed to low doses was smaller for 3D-RT. Pronounced benefits of IMRT were observed for patients with lymph nodes anterior to the heart. IN-RT achieved substantially better values than IF-RT for almost all OAR parameters, i.e., dose reduction of 20% to 50%, regardless of radiation technique.
Reduction of target volume to IN most effectively improves OAR sparing, but is still considered investigational. For the time being, IMRT should be considered for large PTVs especially when the anterior mediastinum is involved.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The value of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is unknown. We assessed the dosimetric parameters, treatment outcomes, and toxicity of IMRT in PMBCL. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Forty-one PMBCL patients underwent mediastinal IMRT after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. Thirty-eight patients had stage I-II disease, and 3 patients had stage III-IV disease. Most patients presented with bulky mediastinal disease (65.9%) and local invasion (82.9%). The dose-volume histograms of the target volume and critical normal structures were evaluated. RESULTS: The average planning target volume (PTV) mean dose was 39 Gy. Only 0.5% and 1.4% of the PTV received <90% and <95% of the prescribed dose, respectively, indicating excellent target coverage. The median mean lung dose and percentage lung volume receiving 20 Gy (V20) were 16.3 Gy and 30.6%. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) were 95.1% and 89.8%. After chemotherapy, consolidation radiation therapy in patients with complete/partial response resulted in significantly better survival than salvage radiation therapy in patients with stable/progressive disease (3-year OS 100% vs 75%; 3-year LC 96.6% vs 62.5%). No grade 4 or 5 acute or late toxicities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Mediastinal IMRT after doxorubicin-based chemotherapy can be safely and efficiently delivered, and it provides favorable outcomes in PMBCL patients with a large target volume and high-risk features.International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 12/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors have an increased morbidity and mortality from secondary cancers and cardiovascular disease (CD). We evaluate doses with involved node radiotherapy (INRT) delivered as 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), or proton therapy (PT), compared with the extensive Mantle Field (MF).Patients and methodsFor 27 patients with early-stage, mediastinal HL, treated with chemotherapy and INRT delivered as 3D CRT (30 Gy), we simulated an MF (36 Gy), INRT-VMAT and INRT-PT (30 Gy). Dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts, estimated risks of CD, lung (LC) and breast cancer (BC), and corresponding life years lost (LYL) were compared.Results3D CRT, VMAT or PT significantly lower the dose to the heart, lungs and breasts and provide lower risk estimates compared with MF, but with substantial patient variability. The risk of CD is not significantly different for 3D CRT versus VMAT. The risk of LC and BC is highest with VMAT. For LYL, PT is the superior modern technique.Conclusions In early-stage, mediastinal HL modern radiotherapy provides superior results compared with MF. However, there is no single best radiotherapy technique for HL-the decision should be made at the individual patient level.Annals of Oncology 04/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore a new positron emission tomography (PET)-based target concept for pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma (PHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: For 10 patients, the planning target volume PTV1 was based on initial CT tumor extension and PTV2 on anatomy-related PET-positive lymph node levels after chemotherapy. The treatment techniques investigated (prescribed dose 19.8 Gy) comprised opposed-field (2F), intensity-modulated photon (IMXT), and single-field (PS) proton techniques. Treatment concepts were compared concerning dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters and organ-equivalent doses (OED). RESULTS: The median PTV1 and PTV2 were 902 ± 555 cm(3) and 281 ± 228 cm(3). When using PTV2 instead of PTV1 for all techniques, the D(2%) of the heart was reduced from 14 to 9 Gy and the D(mean) of the thyroid from 16.6 to 2.7 Gy. Low- (20%), median- (50%), and high-dose volumes (80%) were reduced by 60% for the heart and bones using PTV2. PS reduced the high-dose volume of the lungs and the heart by up to 60%. IMXT increased the low-dose volumes and OED. PTV2 reduced OED by 54 ± 10% for all organs at risk. CONCLUSION: PTV2 has a high impact on the treated volume and on sparing of organs at risk. The combination of an adaptive target volume definition with protons could contribute to future PHL treatment concepts.Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 11/2012; · 4.16 Impact Factor