An Algorithm for Risk Assessment and Intervention of Mother to Child Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus
ABSTRACT Despite immunoprophylaxis, mother to child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) still occurs in infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers. We analyzed methods of risk assessment and interventions for MTCT.
We reviewed 63 articles and abstracts published from 1975-2011 that were relevant to MTCT; articles were identified using the PubMed bibliographic database.
Administration of HB immunoglobulin and HB vaccine to infants at birth (within 12 hours), followed by 2 additional doses of vaccines within 6-12 months, prevented approximately 95% of HBV transmission from HBsAg-positive mothers to their infants. However, HBV was still transmitted from 8%-30% of mothers with high levels of viremia. It is important to assess the risk for MTCT and identify mothers who are the best candidates for intervention. The most important risk factor is maternal level of HBV DNA >200,000 IU (10(6) copies)/mL; other factors include a positive test result for the HB e antigen, pregnancy complications such as threatened preterm labor or prolonged labor, and failure of immunoprophylaxis in prior children. Antiviral therapy during late stages of pregnancy is the most effective method to reduce transmission from mothers with high levels of viremia, but elective cesarean section might also be effective. Antepartum administration of HB immunoglobulin, giving infants a double dose of HB vaccine, or avoiding breastfeeding had no impact on MTCT.
HBsAg-positive mothers should be assessed for risk of MTCT, and infants should receive immunoprophylaxis. Pregnant women with levels of HBV DNA >200,000 IU/mL should be considered for strategies to reduce the risk for MTCT. We propose an algorithm for risk assessment and patient management that is based on a review of the literature and the opinion of a panel of physicians with expertise in preventing MTCT.
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal or mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in a high frequency of chronic infection. Risk of mother-to-child transmission is associated with maternal viral factors including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity and viral load. To investigate associations between age, HBeAg status, HBV DNA levels and genotype in female patients screened for inclusion into two contemporary, randomized HBV trials. Retrospective analyses focused on differences between women of childbearing age (≤44 years) and older women. Female patients (N = 355; 18-69 years) were included in the analysis: 41.7% of patients were Asian. In total, 44.4% were HBeAg-positive. Significantly more women aged ≤44 years were HBeAg-positive compared to women ≥45 years (57.2% versus 27.5%, respectively, p<0.0001), this proportion declined with increasing age. Younger women were significantly more likely to have high HBV viral load (HBV DNA>108 copies mL: ≤44 years 46.0% vs ≥45 years 25.5%, respectively; p<0.0001), and this declined with increasing age. HBeAg positivity was slightly higher in Asian women, associated with a higher proportion of HBV genotypes B and C in this population. There was no obvious relationship between genotype and viral load. Women of childbearing age with CHB are more likely to have high HBV viral load and HBeAg positivity than older women; this likelihood decreases with age. Maternal serological and virological status should therefore be established early in pregnancy, taking into account age and genotype, and a risk-reducing strategy implemented in any patient who is HBeAg positive and has a high viral load.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0121632. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121632 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Despite implementation of universal infant hepatitis B (HB) vaccination, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) still occurs. Limited data are available on the residual MTCT of HBV in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-HBV co-infected women. Objectives: We assessed the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-infected pregnant women and the rate of residual MTCT of HBV from HIV-HBV co-infected women and analyzed the viral determinants in mothers and their HBV-infected children. Study design: HIV-1 infected pregnant women enrolled in two nationwide perinatal HIV prevention trials in Thailand were screened for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and tested for HBeAg and HBV DNA load. Infants born to HBsAg-positive women had HBsAg and HBV DNA tested at 4-6 months. HBV diversity within each HBV-infected mother-infant pair was analyzed by direct sequencing of amplified HBsAg-encoding gene and cloning of amplified products. Results: Among 3312 HIV-1 infected pregnant women, 245(7.4%) were HBsAg-positive, of whom 125 were HBeAg-positive. Of 230 evaluable infants born to HBsAg-positive women, 11(4.8%) were found HBsAg and HBV DNA positive at 4-6 months; 8 were born to HBeAg-positive mothers. HBV genetic analysis was performed in 9 mother-infant pairs and showed that 5 infants were infected with maternal HBV variants harboring mutations within the HBsAg "a" determinant, and four were infected with wild-type HBV present in highly viremic mothers. Conclusions: HBV-MTCT still occurs when women have high HBV DNA load and/or are infected with HBV variants. Additional interventions targeting highly viremic women are thus needed to reduce further HBV-MTCT.Journal of Clinical Virology 10/2013; 58(2):415-421. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.06.025 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The highest incidence rate of hepatitis B (HB) in Spain is detected in adults between 20 and 54 years old, whereas the incidence in children under 1 year old is almost nil. The low prevalence of HB in children under 1 year is mainly due to the success of gestational screening strategies for the detection of HBsAg(+) in pregnant women, and vaccination campaigns during childhood. Currently, in Spain, the last dose of the HB included in the national childhood immunization program is administered at 6 months of age, although some studies show that delaying the age of the administration of the last dose of HB vaccine and increasing the time between doses, may improve immune memory by offering greater protection against this virus in the adulthood. In this article, the impact of HB vaccination in Spain is reviewed, and other potential vaccination strategies in our environment are discussed, such as extending the interval between doses, and administering the last dose in the second year of life, adapting the valid strategy in Spain to the current epidemiological context in order to reduce the prevalence of HB in adulthood.Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 01/2015; 33(2). DOI:10.1016/j.eimc.2014.12.010 · 1.88 Impact Factor