Warm ischemia less than 30 minutes is not necessarily safe during partial nephrectomy: Every minute matters
ABSTRACT At the 11th Annual Meeting of the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO), an expert panel discussed the importance of warm ischemia time on renal function during partial nephrectomy. The position of this manuscript is that every minute of warm ischemia time has a deleterious effect on renal function outcomes following partial nephrectomy.
The presentation was derived from a review of the published urologic, nephrology, and transplant literature related to warm ischemia time and renal function outcomes.
There exist numerous clinical models to study the effects of warm ischemia on renal function. These include the bilateral kidney, unilateral partial nephrectomy, solitary kidney partial nephrectomy, and transplant kidney model. Each of these models provides evidence for minimizing warm ischemia time to prevent acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, and end stage renal failure. In the best available model, solitary kidney partial nephrectomy, each minute of warm ischemia was found to be associated with a 6% increased risk of acute renal failure, 7% increased risk of acute-onset end stage renal disease (ESRD), and 4% increased risk of new-onset ESRD while controlling for preoperative renal function, tumor size, and surgical approach.
There is ample evidence, consistent across multiple human kidney models, supporting the potentially deleterious renal effects of warm ischemia during partial nephrectomy. There does not appear to be a known safe threshold of warm ischemia since each minute sequentially contributes to the risk of developing acute kidney injury and renal function decline. Ultimate renal function following PN is dependent on the "3 Qs": quality (renal function prior to surgery), quantity (renal parenchyma preserved during surgery), and quickness (ischemia time).
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ABSTRACT: Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) is a technically challenging procedure. Advanced skills are needed to accomplish tumor resection, hemostasis, and renorrhaphy within short ischemia time in RPN. Off-clamp RPN with zero ischemia may decrease the risk of ischemic reperfusion injury to the kidney. However, the off-clamp technique has been associated with an increased risk of blood loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of our modified off-clamp technique utilized in certain RPN cases. A total of 81 patients underwent RPN between September 2009 and July 2013 for renal masses. We studied a subgroup of patients who underwent off-clamp RPN with zero ischemia time. The off-clamp technique was utilized for exophytic, nonhilar tumors that have a base of 2 cm or less. We developed a novel technique to avoid ischemia reperfusion renal injury while minimizing blood loss in certain cases of RPN. Of the 81 cases of RPN, we reviewed and adopted the off-clamp technique in 34 patients (41.98%). Utilizing off-clamp RPN resulted in an average blood loss of 96.29 ml and 1.56 days (range: 1-3 days) of hospital stay and minimal change in serum creatinine. Off-clamp RPN is safe and feasible approach to excise certain kidney tumors. It carries the benefits of RPN and prevents ischemia reperfusion renal injury.Urology Annals 04/2015; 7(2):226-30. DOI:10.4103/0974-7796.150529
European Urology 01/2015; 29. DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.09.043 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nephron-sparing surgery has become the standard treatment for T1 renal tumors. However, relevant data on the Taiwanese population are lacking, and most of the current literature uses global instead of split renal function (SRF) for postoperative renal function follow-up. We evaluated the postoperative renal function after minimally invasive partial nephrectomy in Taiwanese patients.Methods We retrospectively reviewed our database from April 2004 to July 2012 and enrolled patients who received laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) or robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and SRF were calculated as representatives of renal function. The preoperative and 6- and 12-month postoperative renal functions were assessed. Freidman test was used to evaluate pre- and postoperative renal function changes; Wilcoxon test was used for comparing the renal function of each period.ResultsThe 6- and 12-month postoperative SRF values were decreased compared with the preoperative values. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age was related to a lower postoperative eGFR, and a longer warm ischemia time was related to a decreased postoperative SRF. Patients with a warm ischemia time of >30 minutes were correlated with a larger mean tumor size, higher “preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical” score, greater amount of blood loss during the operation, longer postoperative hospital stay, and lower postoperative SRF compared with patients with a warm ischemia time of <30 minutes. Patients in the RPN group had shorter warm ischemia time and higher 6-month postoperative SRF compared with patients in the LPN group.ConclusionSRF is more sensitive for postoperative follow-up than eGFR. Longer warm ischemia time is associated with poorer postoperative renal function. RPN is a safe and feasible alternative to LPN.Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 10/2014; 78(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jcma.2014.09.002 · 0.89 Impact Factor