Acute-phase serum amyloid A regulates tumor necrosis factor α and matrix turnover and predicts disease progression in patients with inflammatory arthritis before and after biologic therapy.
ABSTRACT To investigate the relationship between acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA) and joint destruction in inflammatory arthritis.
Serum A-SAA and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and levels of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and type I and type II collagen-generated biomarkers C2C and C1,2C were measured at 0-3 months in patients with inflammatory arthritis commencing anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) therapy and were correlated with 1-year radiographic progression. The effects of A-SAA on MMP/TIMP expression on RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), primary human chondrocytes, and RA/psoriatic arthritis synovial explant cultures were assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibody protein arrays, and gelatin zymography.
Serum A-SAA levels were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with MMP-3, the MMP-3:TIMP-1 ratio, C1,2C, C2C, and VEGF. The baseline A-SAA level but not the ESR or the CRP level correlated with the 28-joint swollen joint count and was independently associated with 1-year radiographic progression (P = 0.038). A-SAA increased MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, and MMP/TIMP expression in RA FLS and synovial explants (P < 0.05). In chondrocytes, A-SAA induced MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 messenger RNA and protein expression (all P < 0.01), resulting in a significant shift in MMP:TIMP ratios (P < 0.05). Gelatin zymography revealed that A-SAA induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity. Blockade of the A-SAA receptor SR-B1 (A-SAA receptor scavenger receptor-class B type 1) inhibited MMP-3, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression in synovial explant cultures ex vivo. Importantly, we demonstrated that A-SAA has the ability to induce TNFα expression in RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05).
A-SAA may be involved in joint destruction though MMP induction and collagen cleavage in vivo. The ability of A-SAA to regulate TNFα suggests that A-SAA signaling pathways may provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis.
- SourceAvailable from: jlr.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In humans, a chronically increased circulating level of C-reactive protein (CRP), a positive acute-phase reactant, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This observation has led to considerable interest in the role of inflammatory proteins in atherosclerosis. In this review, after discussing CRP, we focus on the potential role in the pathogenesis of human vascular disease of inflammation-induced proteins that are carried by lipoproteins. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is transported predominantly on HDL, and levels of this protein increase markedly during acute and chronic inflammation in both animals and humans. Increased SAA levels predict the risk of cardiovascular disease in humans. Recent animal studies support the proposal that SAA plays a role in atherogenesis. Evidence is accruing that secretory phospholipase A(2), an HDL-associated protein, and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, a protein associated predominantly with LDL in humans and HDL in mice, might also play roles both as markers and mediators of human atherosclerosis. In contrast to positive acute-phase proteins, which increase in abundance during inflammation, negative acute-phase proteins have received less attention. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDL, decreases during inflammation. Recent studies also indicate that HDL is oxidized by myeloperoxidase in patients with established atherosclerosis. These alterations may limit the ability of apoA-I to participate in reverse cholesterol transport. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), another HDL-associated protein, also decreases during inflammation. PON1 is atheroprotective in animal models of hypercholesterolemia. Controversy over its utility as a marker of human atherosclerosis may reflect the fact that enzyme activity rather than blood level (or genotype) is the major determinant of cardiovascular risk. Thus, multiple lipoprotein-associated proteins that change in concentration during acute and chronic inflammation may serve as markers of cardiovascular disease. In future studies, it will be important to determine whether these proteins play a causal role in atherogenesis.The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2005; 46(3):389-403. · 4.39 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate in a randomized clinical trial setting with an aggressive combination-therapy arm and a mild-monotherapy arm, whether therapy-induced changes in urinary C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) and type II collagen (CTX-II) predict 5-year radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients had participated in the COBRA (Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoïde Artritis) trial comparing aggressive step-down combination therapy (the COBRA regimen, including temporary high-dose prednisolone, temporary low-dose methotrexate, and sulfasalazine [SSZ]) and mild monotherapy (SSZ). Urinary CTX-I and CTX-II levels were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after initiation of treatment. Radiographs were scored according to the modified Sharp/van der Heijde method (mean of 2 independent readers who were aware of the sequence). Individual long-term radiographic progression was estimated, using baseline radiographs and all radiographs obtained during the followup period, by simple linear regression analysis (curve fitting). Both COBRA therapy and SSZ monotherapy produced a significant decrease in urinary CTX-I and CTX-II levels at 3 months, and this decrease was amplified at 6 months. COBRA therapy suppressed CTX-II (change from baseline levels -36% and -43% at 3 and 6 months, respectively), but not CTX-I, significantly better than did SSZ (-17% and -21% at 3 and 6 months, respectively) at 3 and 6 months. The magnitude of the decrease in urinary CTX-II levels at 3 months significantly predicted long-term (5-year) radiographic progression (beta = 0.48 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.13, 0.83]). This effect was independent of the change in disease activity and inflammation indices at 3 months. Patients whose CTX-II levels were normalized (<150 ng/mmoles of urinary creatinine) at 3 months had a significantly higher chance of radiographic stability (no progression over 5 years) than did patients whose CTX-II levels were increased both at baseline and at 3 months (odds ratio 4.5 [95% CI 1.5, 13]). The individual CTX-II response measured after 3 months of therapy in patients with active RA who had increased CTX-II levels at baseline independently predicts long-term radiographic progression. Urinary CTX-II levels may be used as early markers of treatment efficacy in patients with RA.Arthritis & Rheumatology 06/2004; 50(5):1390-9. · 7.48 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (D2E7), a fully human monoclonal tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody, in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite treatment with MTX. In a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 271 patients with active RA were randomly assigned to receive injections of adalimumab (20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg subcutaneously) or placebo every other week while continuing to take their long-term stable dosage of MTX. The primary efficacy end point was the American College of Rheumatology criteria for 20% improvement (ACR20) at 24 weeks. An ACR20 response at week 24 was achieved by a significantly greater proportion of patients in the 20-mg, 40-mg, and 80-mg adalimumab plus MTX groups (47.8%, 67.2%, and 65.8%, respectively) than in the placebo plus MTX group (14.5%) (P < 0.001). ACR50 response rates with the 20-mg, 40-mg, and 80-mg adalimumab dosages (31.9%, 55.2%, and 42.5%, respectively) were significantly greater than that with placebo (8.1%) (P = 0.003, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). The 40-mg and 80-mg doses of adalimumab were associated with an ACR70 response (26.9% and 19.2%, respectively) that was statistically significantly greater than that with placebo (4.8%) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). Responses were rapid, with the greatest proportion of adalimumab-treated patients achieving an ACR20 response at the first scheduled visit (week 1). Adalimumab was safe and well tolerated; comparable numbers of adalimumab-treated patients and placebo-treated patients reported adverse events. The addition of adalimumab at a dosage of 20 mg, 40 mg, or 80 mg administered subcutaneously every other week to long-term MTX therapy in patients with active RA provided significant, rapid, and sustained improvement in disease activity over 24 weeks compared with MTX plus placebo.Arthritis & Rheumatology 01/2003; 48(1):35-45. · 7.48 Impact Factor