Early renal function decline in type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT Early decline in GFR may reflect progressive kidney disease in type 1 diabetes, but its predictive value in type 2 diabetes is uncertain.
In this longitudinal study, GFR was measured serially over approximately 4.0 years in 195 Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. Renal function decline (RFD) was defined during this initial period by an average GFR loss ≥3.3%/yr, as defined previously in type 1 diabetes. Subsequently, participants were followed for up to 17.8 years to ESRD onset, death, or December 31, 2010, whichever came first.
RFD prevalence during the initial period was 32% in 68 participants with normal baseline albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio [ACR] < 30 mg/g), 42% in 88 with microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to <300 mg/g), and 74% in 39 with macroalbuminuria (ACR ≥300 mg/g; P<0.001). The cumulative incidence of ESRD 10 years after the initial period was 41% in those with RFD and 15% in those without (P<0.001); 41 of the 49 ESRD cases (83.7%) occurred in participants who had or developed macroalbuminuria during the initial period. When adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, and hemoglobin A1c, the ESRD hazard rate was 4.78 times (95% confidence interval, 2.39-9.58) as high in those with RFD as in those without; further adjustment for albuminuria attenuated this association (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-3.91).
In type 2 diabetes, loss of GFR often occurs before the onset of macroalbuminuria, but a decline predictive of ESRD is strongly dependent on progression to macroalbuminuria.
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ABSTRACT: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function, is heritable, suggesting that genes influence renal function. Genes that influence eGFR have been identified through genome-wide association studies. However, family-based linkage approaches may identify loci that explain a larger proportion of the heritability. This study used genome-wide linkage and association scans to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence eGFR. Genome-wide linkage and sparse association scans of eGFR were performed in families ascertained by probands with advanced diabetic nephropathy (DN) from the multi-ethnic Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) study. This study included 954 African Americans (AA), 781 American Indians (AI), 614 European Americans (EA) and 1,611 Mexican Americans (MA). A total of 3,960 FIND participants were genotyped for 6,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the Illumina Linkage IVb panel. GFR was estimated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The non-parametric linkage analysis, accounting for the effects of diabetes duration and BMI, identified the strongest evidence for linkage of eGFR on chromosome 20q11 (log of the odds [LOD] = 3.34; P = 4.4×10(-5)) in MA and chromosome 15q12 (LOD = 2.84; P = 1.5×10(-4)) in EA. In all subjects, the strongest linkage signal for eGFR was detected on chromosome 10p12 (P = 5.5×10(-4)) at 44 cM near marker rs1339048. A subsequent association scan in both ancestry-specific groups and the entire population identified several SNPs significantly associated with eGFR across the genome. The present study describes the localization of QTL influencing eGFR on 20q11 in MA, 15q21 in EA and 10p12 in the combined ethnic groups participating in the FIND study. Identification of causal genes/variants influencing eGFR, within these linkage and association loci, will open new avenues for functional analyses and development of novel diagnostic markers for DN.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81888. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The concept of microalbuminuria has been central to the development of clinical practice and research in the area of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). However, in recent times, the value of a paradigm of DKD based solely on microalbuminuria has been questioned. Although both the absolute level and rate of change of microalbuminuria are linked to the development and progression of DKD, microalbuminuria on its own lacks the necessary sensitivity or specificity to accurately predict kidney outcomes for people with diabetes. The development of microalbumiuria can no longer be viewed as a committed and irreversible stage of DKD, as spontaneous remission is now reported as a common occurrence. In addition, the absence of microalbuminuria or its progression to proteinuria does not signify that an individual patient is safe from a progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Furthermore, although reductions in albuminuria within the microalbuminuric range can be linked to a slower GFR decline in observational studies, this relationship has not been robustly demonstrated in intervention studies. Conclusions regarding the kidney health of individuals with diabetes will continue to be flawed if an inappropriate emphasis is placed on the presence or absence of albuminuria or changes in albuminuria within the microalbuminuric range. This has important implications in terms of undermining the value of microalbuminuria as a surrogate renal end point for intervention trials. There is a need to develop broader models of progressive DKD that include novel pathways and risk markers apart from those related to the traditional 'albuminuric pathway' to renal impairment.Kidney International advance online publication, 9 April 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.98.Kidney International 04/2014; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimsWe aimed to determine whether the presence of hepatic steatosis and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with decline in renal function or onset of microalbuminuria in a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes, including those managed in both primary and secondary care.Methods Nine hundred and thirty-three patients from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, a cohort of Scottish men and women aged 60–74 years with Type 2 diabetes, underwent assessment for hepatic steatosis by liver ultrasonography 1 year after recruitment. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as the presence of steatosis following exclusion of secondary causes of liver disease. Patients were followed for 4 years and decline in renal function was assessed by the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time.ResultsOf the 933 subjects, 530 had hepatic steatosis and, of those with hepatic steatosis, 388 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were significantly associated with rate of decline in renal function, with the mean rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate being –1.55 ml min−1 1.73 m−2 per year for participants with hepatic steatosis compared with –1.84 ml min−1 1.73 m−2 for those without steatosis (P = 0.19). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to participants with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (–1.44 vs. –1.64 ml min−1 1.73 m−2 per year, respectively; P = 0.44). Additionally, neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were associated with the onset or regression of albuminuria during follow-up (all P ≥ 0.05).Conclusions The presence of hepatic steatosis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not associated with decline in renal function during a 4-year follow-up in our cohort of older people with Type 2 diabetes.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Diabetic Medicine 03/2014; · 3.24 Impact Factor