Characteristics of premenopausal and postmenopausal women with acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder: the Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Registry for women.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the natural history of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). We examined the sociodemographic, relationship, help seeking, sexual function, and medical characteristics of women with a clinical diagnosis of generalized, acquired HSDD by menopause status.
This study was a cross-sectional baseline data analysis from the HSDD Registry for Women (N = 1,574, from 33 US clinical sites). HSDD was clinically diagnosed and confirmed. Validated measures of sexual function, relationship factors, and health, as well as newly developed questions on help seeking were assessed using the questionnaire.
Participants were predominantly married or living with a partner (81.7%) and represented a range of race/ethnic backgrounds and ages (mean ± SD, 42.9 ± 11.9 y). Most (56.8%) described their HSDD severity as "moderate to severe," with 26.5% rating the problem severe. Nonetheless, most women (69.8%) reported being happy in their relationship, and 61.8% were satisfied with their partner communication. Postmenopausal women had lower Female Sexual Function Index total scores, indicating worse sexual function (14.0 ± 7.5) than premenopausal women (16.7 ± 6.8, P < 0.001), although both groups had similarly low scores on the sexual desire domain (3.4 ± 1.3 vs 3.3 ± 1.4). Less than half of the overall sample had sought professional help, among whom hormonal treatments had been used by 23.7% of postmenopausal women and by 7.6% of premenopausal women.
Most women with HSDD were in long-term partner relationships with high levels of overall relationship satisfaction. Postmenopausal women were more likely to seek help for their disorder, despite similarly high levels of distress associated with HSDD. Further research is needed to examine treatment outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: An accurate diagnosis of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) currently relies on a time-consuming interview with an expert clinician. Limited access to such expertise means that many women with HSDD remain undiagnosed. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed to provide clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) with a brief diagnostic procedure for the diagnosis of generalized acquired HSDD in women. A prospective non-treatment multicenter study enrolled 263 women at 27 centers in North America in order to test the validity of the DSDS for diagnosing generalized acquired HSDD in women. Subjects completed the DSDS at the screening visit and their answers were reviewed with a clinician who was not an expert in FSD ("non-expert clinician"). Separately and while being unaware of the non-expert clinician's diagnosis, an expert clinician conducted a standard diagnostic interview. Diagnostic outcomes (generalized acquired HSDD or not) were compared. Primary endpoints included the sensitivity and specificity of the DSDS relative to the standard diagnostic interview. Subject and non-expert clinician debriefing were obtained via a written, structured interview. This ensured that a large sample could be tested under uniform conditions across multiple sites. Diagnostic assessment by DSDS and standard diagnostic interview were in agreement in 85.2% (224/263) of cases, with the sensitivity and specificity of the DSDS 83.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Debriefing showed that the five DSDS questions were well understood by 85.4% (76/89) of subjects included in the debriefing exercise, while non-expert clinicians considered the DSDS questions adequate to diagnose HSDD in 92.9% (235/253) of cases. The DSDS is a sensitive and specific brief diagnostic instrument for generalized acquired HSDD in women that is quick and easy to use.Journal of Sexual Medicine 02/2009; 6(3):730-8. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) is a widely used, multi-dimensional self-report instrument for the evaluation of male sexual function. It is has been recommended as a primary endpoint for clinical trials of erectile dysfunction (ED) and for diagnostic evaluation of ED severity. The IIEF was developed in conjunction with the clinical trial program for sildenafil, and has since been adopted as the 'gold standard' measure for efficacy assessment in clinical trials of ED. It has been linguistically validated in 32 languages and used as a primary endpoint in more than 50 clinical trials. This review summarizes early stages in the psychometric validation of the instrument, its subsequent adoption in randomized clinical trials with sildenafil and other ED therapies, and its use in classifying ED severity and prevalence. The IIEF meets psychometric criteria for test reliability and validity, has a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, and correlates well with other measures of treatment outcome. It has demonstrated consistent and robust treatment responsiveness in studies in USA, Europe and Asia, as well as in a wide range of etiological subgroups. Although only one direct comparator trial has been performed to date, the IIEF is also sensitive to therapeutic effects with treatment agents other than sildenafil. A severity classification for ED has recently been developed, in addition to a brief screening version of the instrument. This review includes the strengths as well as limitations of the IIEF, along with some potential areas for future research.International Journal of Impotence Research 09/2002; 14(4):226-44. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Relatively few studies have measured sexual functioning in women using a large, diverse, community-based sample with measures that allow for direct comparisons with previous findings. In this article, we: (1) describe prevalence of sexual activity in women by key sociodemographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, marital status, and socioeconomic status; and (2) estimate the influence of key correlates on sexual problems. Data were analyzed from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a 2002-2005 community-based epidemiologic study of urologic and gynecologic symptoms, sociodemographics, health status, and psychosocial characteristics in a diverse sample of Boston area residents (N = 3,205 women aged 30-79 years). Analyses of sexual activity prevalence and reasons for inactivity were conducted on the full sample, while analyses of sexual problems and their correlates were conducted for the subset of women who engaged in sexual activity with a partner in the previous 4 weeks. A total of 49% of participants were not sexually active, citing lack of interest (51.5%) and lack of a partner (60.8%) as the most common reasons. Data pertaining to five dimensions of sexual functioning were gathered through a self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Female Sexual Function Index, measuring desire among all women and arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and pain among those who were sexually active. Among the sexually active, we obtained a 38.4% prevalence rate of sexual problems and 34.9% of those participants reported that they were also dissatisfied with their sex lives. Therefore, only 13.7% of the sexually active sample exhibited both sexual problems and dissatisfaction with their overall sex lives. Age was strongly and positively associated with sexual problems. In terms of psychosocial factors, depression, sexual and physical abuse in adulthood, global mental health functioning, and alcohol were associated with sexual problems, with variation across racial/ethnic groups.Archives of Sexual Behavior 02/2008; 38(4):514-27. · 3.53 Impact Factor