Proton Pump Inhibitors versus Histamine-2-Receptor Antagonists for the Management of Iatrogenic Gastric Ulcer after Endoscopic Mucosal Resection or Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, PR China.
Digestion (Impact Factor: 2.1). 11/2011; 84(4):315-20. DOI: 10.1159/000331138
Source: PubMed


Both proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and histamine-2-receptor antagonist (H(2)RA) are considered to be effective for the treatment of iatrogenic gastric ulcer after endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). We aimed to systematically evaluate the evidence comparing PPI and H(2)RA for iatrogenic ulcer.
Data from PubMed, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were searched to identify eligible randomized trials. Outcome measures were delayed bleeding, epigastric pain and ulcer healing.
Six full-text studies were identified including a total of 522 patients. Pooled data suggested a significantly lower bleeding rate in the PPI group than in the H(2)RA group (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.95). Subgroup analysis showed PPI was more effective in the prevention of bleeding than H(2)RA for ESD-induced ulcer (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.85) and 8-week duration of medication (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.76). There were no differences in the incidence of epigastric pain (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.53-1.51) and ulcer healing rate after endoscopic therapies between both groups.
This meta-analysis shows PPI is superior to H(2)RA for the prevention of delayed bleeding without different effectiveness in the reduction of epigastric pain and in the promotion of ulcer healing after EMR or ESD.

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    • "Whereas perforations are mainly a problem with technique, postoperative hemorrhage is a serious complication that occurs in a certain proportion of patients irrespective of technical considerations. Studies concerning post-ESD ulcer healing and postoperative hemorrhage have reported that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy gives good healing rates for post-ESD ulcers, and that it is also effective in preventing postoperative hemorrhage [1,2], so PPIs are widely administered post-ESD. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is a lack of consensus regarding the risk of postoperative hemorrhage in patients on antithrombotic therapy who undergo endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD).We examined postoperative bleeding rates and risk factors for postoperative hemorrhage from post-ESD gastric ulcers in patients on antithrombotic therapy. The subjects of this study were 833 patients who underwent ESD of gastric tumors. Of these, 743 were not on antithrombotic therapy and 90 were on some form of antithrombotic therapy (46 on low-dose aspirin (LDA) only, 23 on LDA + thienopyridine, and 21 on LDA + warfarin). All patients commenced proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy immediately postoperatively. Antiplatelet agents were discontinued for 7 days preoperatively and postoperative Day 1, and anticoagulants for 5 days preoperatively and postoperative Day 1. The postoperative bleeding rate in the antithrombotic group was 23.3%, significantly higher than the 2.0% observed in the non-antithrombotic group. Significant differences were seen in patients in the antithrombotic group with and without postoperative bleeding according to ESD duration (p = 0.041), PPI + mucosal protective agent combination therapy (p = 0.039), and LDA + warfarin combination therapy (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of these factors yielded odds ratios of 1.04 for ESD duration, 14.83 for LDA + warfarin combination therapy, and 0.27 for PPI + mucosal protective agent combination therapy. The risk of postoperative hemorrhage following gastric ESD was higher in patients with antithrombotic therapy than in those without that therapy. Among these patients, LDA + warfarin combination therapy and longer ESD duration were significant risk factors for postoperative bleeding. On the contrary, a mucosal protective agent to PPI therapy, lowering the odds ratio for postoperative bleeding, which suggests that the addition of a mucosal protective agent might be effective in preventing post-ESD hemorrhage in patients on antithrombotic therapy.
    BMC Gastroenterology 09/2013; 13(1):136. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-13-136 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The best way to reduce postprocedural bleeding is administration of a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) (Table 2).21,42-45 In several studies, PPIs were superior to histamine-2-receptor antagonists at preventing postprocedural bleeding;46 however, preoperative administration of PPIs might not offer additional benefit.47 In addition, the optimal duration of PPI administration among patients who undergo ESD is unclear. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although techniques and instruments for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have improved, bleeding is still the most common complication. Minimizing the occurrence of bleeding is important because blood can interfere with subsequent procedures. Generally, ESD-related bleeding can be divided into intraprocedural and postprocedural bleedings. Postprocedural bleeding can be further classified into early post-ESD bleeding which occurs within 48 hours after ESD and late post-ESD bleeding which occurs later than 48 hours after ESD. A basic principle for avoiding intraprocedural bleeding is to watch for vessels and coagulate them before cutting. Several countertraction devices have been designed to minimize intraprocedural bleeding. Methods for reducing postprocedural bleeding include administration of proton-pump inhibitors or prophylactic coagulation after ESD. Medical adhesive spray such as n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is also an option for preventing postprocedural bleeding. Various endoscopic treatment modalities are used for both intraprocedural and postprocedural bleeding. However, hemoclipping is infrequently used during ESD because the clips interfere with subsequent resection. Bleeding that occurs as a result of ESD can usually be managed easily. Nonetheless, more effective ways to prevent bleeding, including reliable ESD techniques, must be developed.
    Clinical Endoscopy 09/2013; 46(5):456-462. DOI:10.5946/ce.2013.46.5.456
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can be applied to early gastrointestinal cancers. This technique was developed to achieve radical curative resection and to reduce unnecessary surgical interventions. ESD was designed in eastern countries and is not widely used in the West.Although ESD represents a major therapeutic advance in endoscopy and is performed with curative intent, the complication rate (hemorrhage, perforation) is higher than reported in other techniques, requiring from endoscopists the acquirement of technical skill and experience through a structured and progressive training program to reduce the morbidity associated with this technique and increase its potential benefits. Although there is substantial published evidence on the applications and results of ESD, there are few publications on training in this technique and a standardized training program is lacking. The current article aims to describe the various proposals for training, as well as the basic principles of the technique, its indications, and the results obtained, since theoretical knowledge that would guide endoscopists during the clinical application of ESD is advisable before training begins. Training in an endoscopic technique has a little value without knowledge of the technique's aims, the situations in which it should be applied, and the results that can be expected.
    Gastroenterología y Hepatología 05/2012; 35(5):344–367. DOI:10.1016/j.gastrohep.2011.12.010 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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