Soy milk and dairy consumption is independently associated with ultrasound attenuation of the heel bone among postmenopausal women: the Adventist Health Study-2.
ABSTRACT Soy milk has become a popular substitute for dairy milk with important health claims. We hypothesized that soy milk, based on its nutrient composition, is comparable to dairy products and, therefore, beneficial for bone health. To test this hypothesis, we examined the benefit of soy milk and dairy products intake on bone health using broadband ultrasound attenuation of the calcaneus. Postmenopausal white women (n = 337) who had completed a lifestyle and dietary questionnaire at enrollment into the Adventist Health Study-2 had their calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation measured 2 years later. The association between osteoporosis (defined as a T-score <-1.8) and some dietary factors (soy milk, dairy) and selected lifestyle factors was assessed using logistic regression. In a multivariable model adjusted for demographics, hormone use, and other dietary factors, osteoporosis was positively associated with age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.12) and inversely associated with body mass index (OR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.86-0.97) and current estrogen use (OR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.13-0.56). Compared with women who did not drink soy milk, women drinking soy milk once a day or more had 56% lower odds of osteoporosis (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20-0.98; P(trend) = .04). Women whose dairy intake was once a day or more had a 62% reduction in the likelihood of having osteoporosis (OR = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.86; P(trend) = .02) compared with women whose dairy intake was less than twice a week. Among individual dairy products, only cheese showed an independent and significant protection (OR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.12-0.66; P(trend) = .004) for women eating cheese more than once per week vs those who ate cheese less than once a week. We concluded that osteoporosis is inversely associated with soy milk intake to a similar degree as dairy intake after accounting for age, body mass index, and estrogen use.
Article: Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy 40-60 year old women: a systematic review of the literature.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Based on a systematic review of the literature, only low body weight and menopausal status can be considered with confidence, as important risk factors for low BMD in healthy 40-60 year old women. The use of body weight to identify high risk women may reduce unnecessary BMD testing in this age group. BMD testing of perimenopausal women is increasing but may be unnecessary as fracture risk is low. Appropriate assessment among younger women requires identification of risk factors for low BMD specific to this population. We conducted a systematic literature review of risk factors for low BMD in healthy women aged 40-60 years. Articles were retrieved from six databases and reviewed for eligibility and methodological quality. A grade for overall strength of evidence for each risk factor was assigned. There was good evidence that low body weight and post-menopausal status are risk factors for low BMD. There was good or fair evidence that alcohol and caffeine intake, and reproductive history are not risk factors. There was inconsistent or insufficient evidence for the effect of calcium intake, physical activity, smoking, age at menarche, history of amenorrhea, family history of OP, race and current age on BMD. Based on current evidence in Caucasians, we suggest that, in healthy women aged 40-60 years, only those with a low body weight (< 70 kg) be selected for BMD testing. Further research is necessary to determine optimal race-specific discriminatory weight cut-offs and to evaluate the risk factors for which there was inconclusive evidence.Osteoporosis International 01/2009; 20(1):1-21. · 4.58 Impact Factor
Article: Changes in bone mineral density of the proximal femur and spine with aging. Differences between the postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis syndromes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur, lumbar spine, or both by dual photon absorptiometry in 205 normal volunteers (123 women and 82 men; age range 20 to 92 yr) and in 31 patients with hip fractures (26 women and 5 men; mean age, 78 yr). For normal women, the regression of BMD on age was negative and linear at each site; overall decrease during life was 58% in the femoral neck, 53% in the intertrochanteric region of the femur, and 42% in the lumbar spine. For normal men, the age regression was linear also; the rate of decrease in BMD was two-thirds of that in women for femoral neck and intertrochanteric femur but was only one-fourth of that in women for lumbar spine. This difference may explain why the female/male ratio is 2:1 for hip fractures but 8:1 for vertebral fractures. The standard deviation (Z-score) from the sex-specific age-adjusted normal mean in 26 women with hip fracture averaged -0.31 (P < 0.05) for the femoral neck, -0.53 (P < 0.01) for the intertrochanteric femur, and +0.24 (NS) for the lumbar spine; results were similar for 5 men with hip fractures. By contrast, for 27 additional women, ages 51-65 yr, with only nontraumatic vertebral fractures, the Z-score was -1.92 (P < 0.001) for the lumbar spine. Thus, contrary to the view that osteoporosis is a single age-related entity, our data suggest the existence of two distinct syndromes. One form, "postmenopausal osteoporosis," is characterized by excessive and disproportionate trabecular bone loss, involves a small subset of women in the early postmenopausal period, and is associated mainly with vertebral fractures. The other form, "senile osteoporosis," is characterized by proportionate loss of both cortical and trabecular bone, involves essentially the entire population of aging women and, to a lesser extent, aging men, and is associated with hip fractures or vertebral fractures or both.Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/1982; 70(4):716-23. · 15.39 Impact Factor