Ambulatory high-resolution manometry, lower esophageal sphincter lift and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States
Neurogastroenterology and Motility (Impact Factor: 3.59). 11/2011; 24(1):40-6, e2. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2011.01816.x
Source: PubMed


Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) lift seen on high-resolution manometry (HRM) is a possible surrogate marker of the longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus. Recent studies suggest that longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation.
Our goal was to determine: (i) the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM and (ii) to detect LES lift with LES relaxation using ambulatory HRM color isobaric contour plots.
In vitro validation studies were performed to determine the accuracy of HRM technique in detecting axial movement of the LES. Eight healthy normal volunteers were studied using a custom designed HRM catheter and a 16 channel data recorder, in the ambulatory setting of subject's home environment. Color HRM plots were analyzed to determine the LES lift during swallow-induced LES relaxation as well as during complete and incomplete transient LES relaxations (TLESR).
Satisfactory recordings were obtained for 16 h in all subjects. LES lift was small (2 mm) in association with swallow-induced LES relaxation. LES lift could not be measured during complete TLESR as the LES is not identified on the HRM color isobaric contour plot once it is fully relaxed. On the other hand, LES lift, mean 8.4 ± 0.6 mm, range: 4-18 mm was seen with incomplete TLESRs (n = 80).
Our study demonstrates the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM recordings. Similar to a complete TLESR, longitudinal muscle contraction of the distal esophagus occurs during incomplete TLESRs, which can be detected by the HRM. Using prolonged ambulatory HRM, future studies may investigate the temporal correlation between abnormal longitudinal muscle contraction and esophageal symptoms.

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Available from: Valmik Bhargava, Sep 11, 2014
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    • "LES and esophageal pressure recordings were displayed as HRM color plots. TLESR was classified as complete and incomplete types which were described by Mittal et al.11 Complete TLESR was defined as an end-expiratory LES pressure of < 2 mmHg at the peak of relaxation. Incomplete TLESR was defined as an end-expiratory LES pressure of > 5 mmHg during relaxation.11 "
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    ABSTRACT: Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the main mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of transient lower esophageal sphincter movement in patients with or without gastroesophageal reflux by high-resolution manometry (HRM). From June 2010 to July 2010, we enrolled 9 patients with GERD (GERD group) and 9 subjects without GERD (control group), prospectively. The manometry test was performed in a semi-recumbent position for 120 minutes following ingestion of a standardized, mixed liquid and solid meal. HRM was used to identify the frequency and duration of TLESR, esophageal shortening length from incomplete TLESR, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) response, and the related esophageal motor responses during TLESR. TLESR occurred in 33 in the GERD group and 34 in the control group after 120 minutes following food ingestion. Duration of TLESR and length of esophageal shortening did not differ between 2 groups. UES pressure increase during TLESR was mostly detected in patients with GERD, and UES relaxation was observed frequently in the control group during TLESR. TLESR-related motor responses terminating in TLESR were predominantly observed in the control group. Increased UES pressure was noted frequently in the GERD group, suggesting a mechanism for preventing harmful reflux, which may be composed mainly of fluid on the larynx or pharynx. However, patients with GERD lacked the related motor responses terminating in TLESR to promote esophageal emptying of refluxate.
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    • "One such possibility is prolonged ambulatory HRM that can detect cranial lift of the LES as a marker of longitudinal muscle contraction. Feasibility of such methodology has recently been demonstrated46 and future studies need to confirm the cause and effect relationship between prolonged longitudinal muscle contraction and esophageal pain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively reveal that during peristalsis 2 layers of the esophagus contract in perfect synchrony. On the other hand, during transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), longitudinal muscle contracts independently of circular muscle. Recent studies provide novel insights, i.e., longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation and possibly descending relaxation of the esophagus. In achalasia esophagus and other motility disorders there is discoordination between the 2 muscle layers. Longitudinal muscle contraction patterns are different in the recently described three types of achalasia identified by high-resolution manometry. Robust contraction of the longitudinal muscle in type II achalasia causes pan-esophageal pressurization and is the mechanism of whatever little esophageal emptying that take place in the absence of peristalsis and impaired LES relaxation. It may be that preserved longitudinal muscle contraction is also the reason for superior outcome to medical/surgical therapy in type II achalasia esophagus. Prolonged contractions of longitudinal muscles of the esophagus is a possible mechanism of heartburn and "angina like" pain seen in esophageal motility disorders and possibly achalasia esophagus. Novel techniques to record longitudinal muscle contraction are on the horizon. Neuro-pharmacologic control of circular and longitudinal muscles is different, which provides an important opportunity for the development of novel pharmacological therapies to treat sensory and motor disorders of the esophagus.
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    • "This axial movement or " LES lift " is thought to be a result of pulling the longitudinal muscle [42]. However , its reliability has yet to be fully determined; it is less accurate for small movement <5 mm and furthermore, not all TLESRs or swallows manifest the movement [41]. "
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