Case management intervention in cervical cancer prevention: the Boston REACH coalition women's health demonstration project.
ABSTRACT The Boston REACH Coalition developed a case management intervention for Black women in primary care settings to identify and reduce medical and social obstacles to cervical cancer screening and following up abnormal results.
The 5-year intervention was evaluated among 732 Black women aged 18 to 75 who were at high risk for inadequate Pap smear screening and follow-up. Case managers provided social services referrals to address patient-identified social concerns (e.g., transportation, housing), as well as navigation to prompt screening and follow-up of abnormal tests. The three study aims were to (1) identify the social factors associated with Pap smear screening at baseline before intervention, (2) evaluate the correlation between exposure to case management intervention and achieving recommended Pap screening intervals, and (3) evaluate the correlation between exposure to case management intervention and having timely follow-up of abnormal Pap smear tests.
We found that a lack of a regular clinical provider, concerns communicating with providers, poor self-rated health, and having less than a high school education were important correlates of recent Pap smear screening before the case management intervention. During the case management intervention, we found a significant increase in achieving recommended Pap smear screening intervals among women with a recent Pap smear at study entry (increasing from 52% in the first year to 80% after 4 or more years; p < .01), but not among women who entered the study without a recent Pap smear (increasing from 31% in the first year to 44% after 4 or more years; p = .39). During case management intervention, having social support for childcare was associated with regular screening among women without a recent Pap smear (odds ratio [OR], 3.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-9.69). Insurance status was the key factor in timely clinically indicated follow-up of abnormal results (uninsured OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08-0.86), rather than case management intervention.
Exposure to case management was associated with regular Pap smear screening among women who recently engaged in screening. Future research should focus on systems changes to address social determinants of health, including strategies to facilitate screening for Black women without social support for childcare. To improve follow-up of abnormal results, financial access to care should be addressed.
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ABSTRACT: To analyse the prevalence of abnormal papsmears in a primary care center and the screening practices. Single-center retrospective study on 1,430 FCU performed in 1,251 patients between January 2009 and December 2011 with analysis of demographic, clinical and epidemiological chararacteristics of the women, and the monitoring of the patients with pathological papsmears. The study population was predominantly young (under 25), unmarried, nulliparous, and using contraception. Among the 1,244 FCU, nearly 90% of them were interpretable with the junction area interested. Nine percent were pathological with mainly ASC-US and L-SIL (3.5% and 4.5%) with no difference between more and less than 25years. Two factors were significantly associated with the presence of pathological papsmear: first intercourse before age 14 and smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Monitoring of patients with a pathological papsmear showed that 33% of patients had not an appropriate follow-up especially younger patients. To perform papsmear before 25years because the patient has associated high risk HPV co-factors does not appear justified by the severity or frequency of cytological lesions, especially as it increases the financial cost and is responsible of potential deleterious actions such as conizations probably excessive among the youngest patients. Personalized monitoring of these patients with a pathological papsmear is required. The French practice recommendations on cervical cancer screening (first screening at age 25, 26years cytological control then every 3years up to 65years in patients who have or have had sex) deserve to be applied in young and disadvantaged patients.Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 12/2013; · 0.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Cervical cancer disproportionately affects Latina women in the United States. This study evaluated the impact of patient navigation on cervical cancer prevention in Latinas. Methods: Between January 2004 and April 2011, 533 Latina women with an abnormal Pap smear requiring colposcopy received patient navigation from their healthcare center in Chelsea, Massachusetts, to the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The comparison group comprised 253 non-navigated Latinas from other primary care practices at MGH referred to the same MGH colposcopy clinic. Primary outcomes were the percentage of missed colposcopy appointments, time to colposcopy, and changes in the severity of cervical pathology at colposcopy over two time periods, 2004-2007 and 2008-2011. Results: The mean age in both groups was 35 years (range 22-86). Navigated women had fewer missed colposcopy appointments over time, with the average falling from 19.8% to 15.7% (p=0.024), compared with an insignificant increase in the no-show rates from 18.6% to 20.6% (p=0.454) in the comparison group. The difference in the no-show rate trend over time between the groups was significant (p<0.001). The time to colposcopy did not change in either group, though trends over time demonstrated a shorter follow-up for navigated women (p=0.010). The grade of cervical abnormality among navigated women decreased from a numerical score of 2.03 to 1.83 (p=0.035) over the two time intervals, while the severity of pathological score in the non-navigated group did not change significantly from 1.83 to 1.92 (p=0.573) in the same interval. Comparison of trends in pathological score over time showed a decrease in the severity of cervical abnormality for navigated participants compared to the non-navigated group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Patient navigation can prevent cervical cancer in Latina women by increasing colposcopy clinic attendance, shortening time to colposcopy, and decreasing severity of cervical abnormalities over time.Journal of Women's Health 04/2013; DOI:10.1089/jwh.2012.3900 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Women with breast or cervical cancer abnormalities can experience barriers to timely follow-up care, resulting in delays in cancer diagnosis. Patient navigation programs that identify and remove barriers to ensure timely receipt of care are proliferating nationally. The study used a systematic framework to describe barriers, including differences between African American and Latina women; to determine recurrence of barriers; and to examine factors associated with barriers to follow-up care. Methods: Data originated from 250 women in the intervention arm of the Chicago Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP). The women had abnormal cancer screening findings and navigator encounters. Women were recruited from a community health center and a publicly owned medical center. After describing proportions of African American and Latina women experiencing particular barriers, logistic regression was used to explore associations between patient characteristics, such as race/ethnicity, and type of barriers. Results: The most frequent barriers occurred at the intrapersonal level (e.g., insurance issues and fear), while institutional-level barriers such as system problems with scheduling care were the most commonly recurring over time (29%). The majority of barriers (58%) were reported in the first navigator encounter. Latinas (81%) reported barriers more often than African American women (19%). Differences in race/ethnicity and employment status were associated with types of barriers. Compared to African American women, Latinas were more likely to report an intrapersonal level barrier. Unemployed women were more likely to report an institutional level barrier. Conclusion: In a sample of highly vulnerable women, there is no single characteristic (e.g., uninsured) that predicts what kinds of barriers a woman is likely to have. Nevertheless, navigators appear able to easily resolve intrapersonal-level barriers, but ongoing navigation is needed to address system-level barriers. Patient navigation programs can adopt the PNRP barriers framework to assist their efforts in assuring timely follow-up care.Journal of Women's Health 05/2013; DOI:10.1089/jwh.2012.3590 · 1.90 Impact Factor