Identification of a novel single-stranded, circular DNA virus from bovine stool.
ABSTRACT We report the identification of a novel single-stranded, circular DNA virus isolated from bovine stool. The virus, named bovine stool-associated circular DNA virus (BoSCV), has a genome comprising 2600 bases of circular ssDNA, with two putative ORFs encoding replicase and capsid proteins, arranged inversely. The stem-loop structure was located between the 3' ends of the two putative ORFs, as in chimpanzee stool-associated circular virus (ChimpSCV) and unlike other circular DNA viruses, including members of the families Circoviridae, Nanoviridae and Geminiviridae. BoSCV was also genetically similar to ChimpSCV, with approximately 30 % identity in the replicase and capsid proteins. A phylogenetic analysis based on the replicase protein showed that BoSCV and ChimpSCV are in the same clade. A field survey using BoSCV-specific PCRs targeting ORF1 detected BoSCV and BoSCV-like sequences in bovine and porcine stool samples. BoSCV appears to belong to a new genus of circular DNA viruses.
Article: Simultaneous identification of DNA and RNA viruses present in pig faeces using process-controlled deep sequencing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Animal faeces comprise a community of many different microorganisms including bacteria and viruses. Only scarce information is available about the diversity of viruses present in the faeces of pigs. Here we describe a protocol, which was optimized for the purification of the total fraction of viral particles from pig faeces. The genomes of the purified DNA and RNA viruses were simultaneously amplified by PCR and subjected to deep sequencing followed by bioinformatic analyses. The efficiency of the method was monitored using a process control consisting of three bacteriophages (T4, M13 and MS2) with different morphology and genome types. Defined amounts of the bacteriophages were added to the sample and their abundance was assessed by quantitative PCR during the preparation procedure. The procedure was applied to a pooled faecal sample of five pigs. From this sample, 69,613 sequence reads were generated. All of the added bacteriophages were identified by sequence analysis of the reads. In total, 7.7% of the reads showed significant sequence identities with published viral sequences. They mainly originated from bacteriophages (73.9%) and mammalian viruses (23.9%); 0.8% of the sequences showed identities to plant viruses. The most abundant detected porcine viruses were kobuvirus, rotavirus C, astrovirus, enterovirus B, sapovirus and picobirnavirus. In addition, sequences with identities to the chimpanzee stool-associated circular ssDNA virus were identified. Whole genome analysis indicates that this virus, tentatively designated as pig stool-associated circular ssDNA virus (PigSCV), represents a novel pig virus. The established protocol enables the simultaneous detection of DNA and RNA viruses in pig faeces including the identification of so far unknown viruses. It may be applied in studies investigating aetiology, epidemiology and ecology of diseases. The implemented process control serves as quality control, ensures comparability of the method and may be used for further method optimization.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34631. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large number of novel single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have been characterised from various environmental sources in the last 5 years. The bulk of these have been from faecal sources, and faecal sampling is an ideal non-invasive pathogen sampling method. We characterised a novel ssDNA from a porcine faecal sample from Cass Basin of the South Island of New Zealand. The novel viral genome has two large open reading frames (ORFs), which are bidirectionally transcribed and separated by intergenic regions. The largest ORF has some degree of similarity (<30 %) to the putative capsid protein of chimpanzee stool-associated circular ssDNA virus (ChiSCV) and pig stool-associated single-stranded DNA virus (PigSCV), whereas the second-largest ORF has high similarity to the putative replication-associated protein (Rep) of ChiSCV (~50 %) and bovine stool-associated circular DNA virus (BoSCV; ~30 %). Based on genome architecture, location of putative stem-loop like elements, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the gene encoding the Rep protein, the novel isolate belongs to the same family of ssDNA viruses as ChiSCV and BoSCV.Archives of Virology 09/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor