The Influence of Bacille Calmette-Guerin Vaccine Strain on the Immune Response against Tuberculosis A Randomized Trial
ABSTRACT Approximately 100 million doses of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine are given each year to protect against tuberculosis (TB). More than 20 genetically distinct BCG vaccine strains are in use worldwide. Previous studies suggest that BCG vaccine strain influences the immune response and protection against TB. Current data on which BCG vaccine strain induces the optimal immune response in humans are insufficient.
To compare the immune response to three different BCG vaccine strains given to infants at birth.
Newborn infants in a tertiary women's hospital were immunized at birth with one of three BCG vaccine strains. A stratified randomization according to the mother's region of birth was used.
The presence of mycobacterial-specific polyfunctional CD4 T cells measured by flow cytometry 10 weeks after immunization. Of the 209 infants immunized, data from 164 infants were included in the final analysis (BCG-Denmark, n = 54; BCG-Japan, n = 54; BCG-Russia, n = 57). The proportion of polyfunctional CD4 T cells was significantly higher in infants immunized with BCG-Denmark (0.013%) or BCG-Japan (0.016%) than with BCG-Russia (0.007%) (P = 0.018 and P = 0.003, respectively). Infants immunized with BCG-Japan had higher concentrations of secreted Th1 cytokines; infants immunized with BCG-Denmark had higher proportions of CD107-expressing cytotoxic CD4 T cells.
There are significant differences in the immune response induced by different BCG vaccine strains in newborn infants. Immunization with BCG-Denmark or BCG-Japan induced higher frequencies of mycobacterial-specific polyfunctional and cytotoxic T cells and higher concentrations of Th1 cytokines. These findings have potentially important implications for global antituberculosis immunization policies and future tuberculosis vaccine trials.
SourceAvailable from: Delphin Mavinga Phanzu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The only available vaccine that could be potentially beneficial against mycobacterial diseases contains live attenuated bovine tuberculosis bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis) also called Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Even though the BCG vaccine is still widely used, results on its effectiveness in preventing mycobacterial diseases are partially contradictory, especially regarding Buruli Ulcer Disease (BUD). The aim of this case-control study is to evaluate the possible protective effect of BCG vaccination on BUD. The present study was performed in three different countries and sites where BUD is endemic: in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, and Togo from 2010 through 2013. The large study population was comprised of 401 cases with laboratory confirmed BUD and 826 controls, mostly family members or neighbors. After stratification by the three countries, two sexes and four age groups, no significant correlation was found between the presence of BCG scar and BUD status of individuals. Multivariate analysis has shown that the independent variables country (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.24), age (p = 0.96), and presence of a BCG scar (p = 0.07) did not significantly influence the development of BUD category I or category II/III. Furthermore, the status of BCG vaccination was also not significantly related to duration of BUD or time to healing of lesions. In our study, we did not observe significant evidence of a protective effect of routine BCG vaccination on the risk of developing either BUD or severe forms of BUD. Since accurate data on BCG strains used in these three countries were not available, no final conclusion can be drawn on the effectiveness of BCG strain in protecting against BUD. As has been suggested for tuberculosis and leprosy, well-designed prospective studies on different existing BCG vaccine strains are needed also for BUD.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 01/2015; 9(1):e3457. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003457 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biomarkers that can identify tuberculosis (TB) disease and serve as markers for efficient therapy are requested. We have studied T cell cytokine production (IFN-у, IL-2, TNF-α) and degranulation (CD107a) as well as subsets of CD4+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) after in vitro Mtb antigen stimulation (ESAT-6, CFP-10, Ag85) in 32 patients with active TB disease throughout 24 weeks of effective TB treatment. A significant decline in the fraction of Mtb specific total IFN-у and single IFN-у producing T cells was observed already after 2 weeks of treatment, whereas the pool of single IL-2+ cells increased over time for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The Treg subsets CD25highCD127low, CD25highCD147++ and CD25highCD127lowCD161+ expanded significantly after Mtb antigen stimulation in vitro at all time-points, whereas the CD25highCD127lowCD39+ Tregs remained unchanged. The fraction of CD25highCD127low Tregs increased after 8 weeks of treatment. Thus, we revealed an opposing shift of Tregs and intracellular cytokine production during treatment. This may indicate that functional signatures of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells can serve as immunological correlates of early curative host responses. Whether such signatures can be used as biomarkers in monitoring and follow-up of TB treatment needs to be further explored.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 10/2014; 179(3). DOI:10.1111/cei.12468 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BCG is used widely as the sole licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, but it has variable efficacy and the reasons for this are still unclear. No reliable biomarkers to predict future protection against, or acquisition of, TB infection following immunisation have been identified. Lessons from BCG could be valuable in the development of effective tuberculosis vaccines. Within the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study birth cohort in Uganda, infants received BCG at birth. We investigated factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and with cytokine response to mycobacterial antigen at age five years. We also investigated whether cytokine responses at one year were associated with LTBI at five years of age. Blood samples from age one and five years were stimulated using crude culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a six-day whole blood assay. IFN-γ, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 production was measured. LTBI at five years was determined using T-SPOT.TB(®) assay. Associations with LTBI at five years were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Multiple linear regression with bootstrapping was used to determine factors associated with cytokine responses at age five years. LTBI prevalence was 9% at age five years. Only urban residence and history of TB contact/disease were positively associated with LTBI. BCG vaccine strain, LTBI, HIV infection, asymptomatic malaria, growth z-scores, childhood anthelminthic treatment and maternal BCG scar were associated with cytokine responses at age five. Cytokine responses at one year were not associated with acquisition of LTBI by five years of age. Although multiple factors influenced anti-myocbacterial immune responses at age five, factors likely to be associated with exposure to infectious cases (history of household contact, and urban residence) dominated the risk of LTBI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Vaccine 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.015 · 3.49 Impact Factor