Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2011; 6(11):e26782. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026782
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Climate change, the need for efficient and environment-friendly energy use and health-related issues like obesity and addictions, these three crucial topics build a triad that the global society has extensively been discussing and caring about during the past decades. First, according to the recently published fifth IPCC climate change assessment report (2013), intense weather conditions have been on the rise. These changes will in extreme cases impose life-threatening dangers to some civilizations, but it will mostly influence individual attitudes and decision-making and thus finally modify consumption behavior quite dramatically during the next decades. Second, the European Union is aiming for a 20% cut in Europe's annual primary energy consumption by 2020 (Energy Efficiency Plan 2011). This government-driven aim does not only affect global industry, but again also the consumption behavior of each individual end-user. Third, according to the World Health Organization (2013), worldwide obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. In fact, 65% of the world's population lives in countries where overweight and obesity kills more people than underweight (World Health Organization, 2013). Given these unpleasant scenarios we need to get active now in order to prevent the worst and to ensure the best possible and highest standards of life across the globe.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 04/2014; · 2.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To propose startle reflex modulation (SRM) as an objective measure of emotions of children with profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Knowledge about emotion states of children with PMD is crucial to their individualised care and support. Proxy reporting, observational and physiological measures of emotion are reported in the literature. Despite advances in this science, the rigour of the findings and methods are contested. In this article, we introduce SRM; a neurophysiological measure untried with children with PMD, despite its well-known sensitivity to even subtle changes in affective processing without depending on explicit responses. Results: We propose a research agenda that aims to deliver a more comprehensive and accurate profile of the inner states of these children, based upon previous research undertaken using SRM. Conclusion: It is suggested that this objective measure has potential to provide useful information about the inner emotional states of children with PMD.
    Developmental neurorehabilitation 10/2013; 16(5):340-4.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44489. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014