Reelin sets the pace of neocortical neurogenesis.
ABSTRACT Migration of neurons during cortical development is often assumed to rely on purely post-proliferative reelin signaling. However, Notch signaling, long known to regulate neural precursor formation and maintenance, is required for the effects of reelin on neuronal migration. Here, we show that reelin gain-of-function causes a higher expression of Notch target genes in radial glia and accelerates the production of both neurons and intermediate progenitor cells. Converse alterations correlate with reelin loss-of-function, consistent with reelin controlling Notch signaling during neurogenesis. Ectopic expression of reelin in isolated clones of progenitors causes a severe reduction in neuronal differentiation. In mosaic cell cultures, reelin-primed progenitor cells respond to wild-type cells by further decreasing neuronal differentiation, consistent with an increased sensitivity to lateral inhibition. These results indicate that reelin and Notch signaling cooperate to set the pace of neocortical neurogenesis, a prerequisite for proper neuronal migration and cortical layering.
- SourceAvailable from: Ali Shariati[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gene duplication provides genetic material required for functional diversification. An interesting example is the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) protein family. The APP gene family has experienced both expansion and contraction during evolution. The three mammalian members have been studied quite extensively in combined knock out models. The underlying assumption is that APP, amyloid precursor like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1, APLP2) are functionally redundant. This assumption is primarily supported by the similarities in biochemical processing of APP and APLPs and on the fact that the different APP genes appear to genetically interact at the level of the phenotype in combined knockout mice. However, unique features in each member of the APP family possibly contribute to specification of their function. In the current review, we discuss the evolution and the biology of the APP protein family with special attention to the distinct properties of each homologue. We propose that the functions of APP, APLP and APLP2 have diverged after duplication to contribute distinctly to different neuronal events. Our analysis reveals that the APLP2 is significantly diverged from APP and APLP1.FEBS letters 05/2013; · 3.54 Impact Factor