Use of artificial digestive systems to investigate the biopharmaceutical factors influencing the survival of probiotic yeast during gastrointestinal transit in humans.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the influence of the main biopharmaceutical factors on the viability of a new probiotic yeast strain, using dynamic in vitro systems simulating human gastric/small intestinal (TIM) and large intestinal (ARCOL) environments.
The viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3856 throughout the artificial digestive tract was determined by microbial counting. We investigated the effects of galenic formulation, food intake, dose, mode and frequency of administration on yeast survival rate.
In both fasted and fed states, yeast viability in the upper digestive tract was significantly higher when the probiotic was administered in hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) capsules compared to tablets. Food intake led to a delay in yeast release and a two-fold increase in strain survival. Whatever the dose, yeasts were particularly sensitive to the large intestinal environment. High concentrations of probiotic could only be maintained in the colon when it was inoculated twice a day over a 5-h-period.
TIM and ARCOL are complementary in vitro tools relevant for screening purposes, supplying valuable information on the effects of galenic form, food intake and dose regimen on the viability of probiotics throughout the human digestive tract.
Article: Analysis of gastric emptying data.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: How should gastric emptying data be summarized to allow comparisons between males or between groups of subjects within a study, and to facilitate comparisons of results from study to study. We review standardization issues for reporting gastric emptying data, discuss criteria for choosing a method of analysis, review methods which have been used to describe gastric emptying data, recommend trial of the power exponential curve, and illustrate its use in the analysis and interpretation of data from several studies involving different types of meals and different types of subjects. We show why nonlinear curves should be fit using nonlinear least squares.Gastroenterology 01/1983; 83(6):1306-12. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An in vitro methodology which mimics in vivo human upper gastrointestinal transit was developed. The transit tolerance of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was determined by exposing washed cell suspensions at 37 degrees C to a simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0), containing pepsin (0.3% w/v) and sodium chloride (0.5% w/v), and a simulated small intestinal juice (pH 8.0), containing pancreatin USP (1 g l-1) and sodium chloride (5 g l-1), and monitoring changes in total viable count periodically. The methodology was also employed to determine the effect of adding milk proteins (1 g l-1), hog gastric mucin (1 g l-1) and soyabean trypsinchymotrypsin inhibitor [SBTCI] (1 g l-1) on transit tolerance. The majority (14 of 15) of isolates lost > 90% viability during simulated gastric transit. Only one isolate, Lactobacillus fermentum KLD, was considered intrinsically resistant. The addition of milk proteins, singly and in combination, generally improved gastric transit tolerance. In this regard, two isolates, Lact. casei 212.3 and Bifidobacterium infantis 25962, exhibited 100% gastric transit tolerance in the presence of milk proteins. In general, the addition of hog gastric mucin did not influence simulated gastric transit tolerance of lactobacilli but tended to increase that of bifidobacteria. However, it increased that of Lact. casei 242 and Lact. salivarius 43338 but diminished that of B. bifidum 2715 and B. animalis Bo. Selected bile salts-resistant isolates were intrinsically tolerant to simulated small intestinal transit. Only Lact. casei F19 and B. adolescentis 15703T showed significant reduction in viability after 240 min. In general, the addition of milk proteins and SBTCI did not affect simulated small intestinal transit tolerance. However, they significantly improved the intrinsic resistance of Lact. casei F19 but diminished that of B. breve 15700T. It is concluded that, whereas the majority of bile salts-resistant lactobacilli and bifidobacteria may be intrinsically sensitive to gastric transit, they are intrinsically resistant to small intestinal transit. In addition, it is postulated that milk proteins and mucin may function as both buffering agents and inhibitors of digestive protease activity in vivo, thereby protecting ingested bacterial strains during upper gastrointestinal transit.Journal of Applied Microbiology 05/1998; 84(5):759-68. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with a computer simulation to evaluate the survival rate and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase activity of a recombinant model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the plant P450 73A1. The yeasts showed a high level of resistance to gastric and small intestinal secretions (survival rate after 4 h of digestion, 95.6% +/- 10.1% [n = 4]) but were more sensitive to the colonic conditions (survival rate after 4 h of incubation, 35.9% +/- 2.7% [n = 3]). For the first time, the ability of recombinant S. cerevisiae to carry out a bioconversion reaction has been demonstrated throughout the gastrointestinal tract. In the gastric-small intestinal system, 41.0% +/- 5.8% (n = 3) of the ingested trans-cinnamic acid was converted into p-coumaric acid after 4 h of digestion, as well as 8.9% +/- 1.6% (n = 3) in the stomach, 13.8% +/- 3.3% (n = 3) in the duodenum, 11.8% +/- 3.4% (n = 3) in the jejunum, and 6.5% +/- 1.0% (n = 3) in the ileum. In the large intestinal system, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase activity was detected but was too weak to be quantified. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae may afford a useful host for the development of biodrugs and may provide an innovative system for the prevention or treatment of diseases that escape classical drug action. In particular, yeasts may provide a suitable vector for biodetoxication in the digestive environment.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2003; 69(5):2884-92. · 3.68 Impact Factor