Serine Protease Inhibition Reduces Post-Ischemic Granulocyte Recruitment in Mouse Intestine
ABSTRACT Proteases and proteinase-activated receptor (PAR) activation are involved in several intestinal inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that serine proteases and PAR activation could also modulate the intestinal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to 90 minutes of intestinal ischemia followed or not by reperfusion. Sham-operated animals served as controls. After ischemia, plasma and tissue serine protease activity levels were increased compared to the activity measured in plasma and tissues from sham-operated mice. This increase was maintained or further enhanced after 2 and 5 hours of reperfusion, respectively. Trypsin (25 kDa) was detected in tissues both after ischemia and 2 hours of reperfusion. Treatment with FUT-175 (10 mg/kg), a potent serine protease inhibitor, increased survival after I-R, inhibited tissue protease activity, and significantly decreased intestinal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and chemokine and adhesion molecule expression. We investigated whether serine proteases modulate granulocyte recruitment by a PAR-dependent mechanism. MPO levels and adhesion molecule expression were significantly reduced in I-R groups pre-treated with the PAR(1) antagonist SCH-79797 (5 mg/kg) and in Par(2)(-/-)mice, compared, respectively, to vehicle-treated group and wild-type littermates. Thus, increased proteolytic activity and PAR activation play a pathogenic role in intestinal I-R injury. Inhibition of PAR-activating serine proteases could be beneficial to reduce post-ischemic intestinal inflammation.
- SourceAvailable from: Francesca Saccani
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- "morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R      . More recently, we focused our attention on 5-HT, a known paracrine mediator and neurotransmitter involved in the physiological regulation of gut motility, perception and secretion . "
ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a potentially life-threatening disease, ensuing from various clinical conditions. Experimentally, either protective or detrimental roles have been attributed to 5-HT in the functional and morphological injury caused by mesenteric I/R. Recently, we proved the involvement of 5-HT2A receptors in the intestinal dysmotility and leukocyte recruitment induced by 45min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by 24hours reperfusion in mice. Starting from these premises, the aim of our present work was to investigate the role played by endogenous 5-HT in the same experimental model where 45min SMA clamping was followed by 5hours reflow. To this end, we first observed that ischemic preconditioning before I/R injury (IPC+I/R) reverted the increase in 5-HT tissue content and in inflammatory parameters induced by I/R in mice. Second, the effects produced by intravenous administration of 5-HT1A ligands (partial agonist buspirone 10 mg·kg(-1), antagonist WAY100135 0.5-5 mg·kg(-1)), 5-HT2A antagonist sarpogrelate (10mg·kg(-1)), 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron (0.1mg·kg(-1)), 5-HT4 antagonist GR125487 (5mg·kg(-1)) and 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (10mg·kg(-1)) on I/R-induced inflammatory response were investigated in I/R mice and compared to those obtained in sham-operated animals (S). Our results confirmed the significant role played by 5-HT2A receptors not only in the late but also in the early I/R-induced microcirculatory dysfunction and showed that blockade of 5-HT1A receptors protected against the intestinal leukocyte recruitment, plasma extravasation and reactive oxygen species formation triggered by SMA occlusion and reflow. The ability of α7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAchR) antagonist methyllycaconitine (5mg·kg(-1)) to counteract the beneficial action provided by buspirone on I/R-induced neutrophil infiltration suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect produced by 5-HT1A receptor antagonism could be partly ascribed to the indirect activation of α7nAch receptors.Pharmacological Research 02/2014; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.02.002 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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- "Microscopic histological damage score was evaluated by a person unaware of the treatments and was based on a semiquantitative scoring system in which the following features were graded: extent of destruction of normal mucosal architecture (0, normal; 1, 2, and 3, mild, moderate, and extensive damage, respectively), presence and degree of cellular infiltration (0, normal; 1, 2, and 3, mild, moderate, and transmural infiltration), extent of muscle thickening (0, normal; 1, 2, and 3, mild, moderate, and extensive thickening), presence or absence of crypt abscesses (0, absent; 1, present), and presence or absence of goblet cell depletion (0, absent; 1, present). The scores for each feature were then summed with a maximum possible score of 11 as previously described , . "
ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites are bioactive autoacoids that play an important role in the pathogenesis of a vast number of pathologies, including gut diseases. The induction and the resolution of inflammation depend on PUFA metabolic pathways that are favored. Therefore, understanding the profile of n-6 (eicosanoids)/n-3 (docosanoids) PUFA-derived metabolites appear to be as important as gene or protein array approaches, to uncover the molecules potentially implicated in inflammatory diseases. Using high sensitivity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we characterized the tissue profile of PUFA metabolites in an experimental model of murine intestinal ischemia reperfusion. We identified temporal and quantitative differences in PUFA metabolite production, which correlated with inflammatory damage. Analysis revealed that early ischemia induces both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid production. Primarily, LOX- (5/15/12/8-HETE, LTB4, LxA4) and CYP- (5, 6-EET) metabolites were produced upon ischemia, but also PGE3, and PDx. This suggests that different lipids simultaneously play a role in the induction and counterbalance of ischemic inflammatory response from its onset. COX-derived metabolites were more present from 2 to 5 hours after reperfusion, fitting with the concomitant inflammatory peaks. All metabolites were decreased 48 hours post-reperfusion except for to the pro-resolving RvE precursor 18-HEPE and the PPAR-γαμμα agonist, 15d-PGJ2. Data obtained through the pharmacological blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid-4, which can be activated by 5, 6-EET, revealed that the endogenous activation of this receptor modulates post-ischemic intestinal inflammation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that different lipid pathways are involved in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion processes. Some metabolites, which expression is severely changed upon intestinal ischemia-reperfusion could provide novel targets and may facilitate the development of new pharmacological treatments.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e75581. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075581 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ability to predictably engineer the composition of bowel microbial communities (microbiota) using dietary components is important because of the reported associations of altered microbiota composition with medical conditions. In a synecological study, weanling conventional Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old) were fed a basal diet (BD) or a diet supplemented with resistant starch (RS) at 5%, 2.5%, or 1.25% for 28 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) profiles in the colonic digesta showed that rats fed RS had altered microbiota compositions due to blooms of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The altered microbiota was associated with changes in colonic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, colonic-tissue gene expression (Gsta2 and Ela1), and host physiology (serum metabolite profiles and colonic goblet cell numbers). Comparisons between germ-free and conventional rats showed that transcriptional and serum metabolite differences were mediated by the microbiota and were not the direct result of diet composition. Altered transcriptomic and physiological responses may reflect the young host's attempts to maintain homeostasis as a consequence of exposure to a new collection of bacteria and their associated biochemistry.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2012; 78(18):6656-64. DOI:10.1128/AEM.01536-12 · 3.67 Impact Factor