Superexchange-Like Interaction of Encaged Molecular Oxygen in Nitrogen-Doped Water Cages of Clathrate Hydrates

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 Program), KAIST, Daejeon, 305-701, Korea.
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 11.44). 11/2011; 133(50):20399-404. DOI: 10.1021/ja2081394
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clathrate hydrates are a highly prospective material in energy and environmental fields, but the inherent nature of inclusion phenomena occurring in the stacked water cages has not been completely resolved yet. Investigating the magnetism of guest molecules is a new experimental approach in clathrate hydrate research to open the possibility of icy magnetic applications as a novel material as well as to understand the unrevealed host-guest interactions in icy inclusion compounds. In this study, we observed an indirect spin coupling between encaged dioxygen molecules via a nonmagnetic water framework through the measurement of guest magnetization. This spin coupling is reminiscent of superexchange coupling between magnetic ions through intervening oxygens in antiferromagnetic oxides, such as MnO and CoO. Theoretical calculations revealed that OH(-) incorporated in the framework induced the mixing of perpendicular π* orbitals of two distant dioxygens and that ammonia doping into the hydrate cage leads to a longer lifetime of that orientation.

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    ABSTRACT: Calculations of NMR parameters (the absolute shielding constants and the spin-spin coupling constants) for 5(12), 5(12)6(2) and 5(12)6(4) cages enclathrating CH4, C2H6 and C3H8 molecules are presented. The DFT/B3LYP/HuzIII-su3 level of theory was employed. The (13)C shielding constants of guest molecules are close to available experimental data. In two cases (the ethane in 5(12) and the propane in 5(12)6(2) cages) the (13)C shielding constants are reported for the first time. Inversion of the methyl/methylene (13)C and (1)H shielding constants order is found for propane in the 5(12)6(2) cage. Topological criteria are used to interpret the changes of values of NMR parameters of water molecules and they establish a connection between single cages and bulk crystal.
    Journal of Molecular Modeling 12/2014; 20(12):2511. DOI:10.1007/s00894-014-2511-2 · 1.87 Impact Factor


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