A prospective study of intake of trans-fatty acids from ruminant fat, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and marine oils and mortality from CVD.

Department of Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 11/2011; 108(4):743-54. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114511005897
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have adverse effects on blood lipids, but whether TFA from different sources are associated with risk of CVD remains unresolved. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between TFA intake from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), partially hydrogenated fish oils (PHFO) and ruminant fat (rTFA) and risks of death of CVD, CHD, cerebrovascular diseases and sudden death in the Norwegian Counties Study, a population-based cohort study. Between 1974 and 1988, participants were examined for up to three times. Fat intake was assessed with a semi-quantitative FFQ. A total of 71,464 men and women were followed up through 2007. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were estimated with Cox regression. Energy from TFA was compared to energy from all other sources, carbohydrates or unsaturated cis-fatty acids with different multivariable models. During follow-up, 3870 subjects died of CVD, 2383 of CHD, 732 of cerebrovascular diseases and 243 of sudden death. Significant risks, comparing highest to lowest intake category, were found for: TFA from PHVO and CHD (HR 1.23 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.50)) and cerebrovascular diseases (HR 0.65 (95 % CI 0.45, 0.94)); TFA from PHFO and CVD (HR 1.14 (95 % CI 1.03, 1.26)) and cerebrovascular diseases (HR 1.32 (95 % CI 1.04, 1.69)); and rTFA intake and CVD (HR 1.30 (95 % CI 1.05, 1.61)), CHD (HR 1.50 (95 % CI 1.11, 2.03)) and sudden death (HR 2.73 (95 % CI 1.19, 6.25)) in women. These associations with rTFA intake were not significant in men (P interaction ≥ 0.01). The present study supports that TFA intake, irrespective of source, increases CVD risk. Whether TFA from PHVO decreases risk of cerebrovascular diseases warrants further investigation.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary trans double bond containing fatty acids have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There are two main sources of dietary trans fatty acids: meat and dairy fats, and partially hydrogenated fats. Because of a number of factors, including changes in federal labeling requirements for packaged foods, and local bans and grassroots pressure on the use of partially hydrogenated fat, trans fat intake has declined in recent years. Similar to saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids increase plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations. In contrast to saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids do not increase high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations. These differences have been attributed to lipoprotein catabolic rate rather than production rate. When reported, effects of partially hydrogenated fat on glucose homeostasis, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, and LDL oxidation are modest. Although at this time some issues remain unresolved regarding trans fatty acids and CVD risk factors other than plasma lipoprotein concentrations, they should not affect the final dietary recommendation to limit intake.
    Current Atherosclerosis Reports 08/2014; 16(8):433. · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trans-fatty acids (TFA) have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, by affecting blood lipids and inflammation factors. Current nutrition recommendations emphasise a limitation of dietary TFA intake. The aim of this study was to investigate fatty acid composition in sweet bakery products, with emphasis on TFA, on the Swedish market and compare fatty acid composition over time. Products were sampled in 2001, 2006 and 2007 and analysed for fatty acid composition by using GC. Mean TFA levels were 0.7% in 2007 and 5.9% in 2001 of total fatty acids. In 1995-97, mean TFA level was 14.3%. In 2007, 3 of 41 products had TFA levels above 2% of total fatty acids. TFA content had decreased in this product category, while the proportion of saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids had increased, mostly through increased levels of 16:0 and 18:2 n-6, respectively. The total fat content remained largely unchanged. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 05/2015; 175:423-30. · 3.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The issue of whether saturated fats and trans fats are superior predictors of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease than n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), remains a matter of contention. Furthermore, few studies have examined the relationship between fatty acids and the outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of various plasma fatty acids as predictors for all-cause death and CVD events in an ethnic Chinese population. This study assembled a community-based prospective cohort, comprising 1833 participants (60.6 ± 10.5 yrs, 44.5% women) who underwent a comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in blood using gas chromatography. None of the subjects had a history of CVD at the time of recruitment. A total of 568 individuals died and 275 individuals developed CVD during the follow-up period (median of 9.6 years; interquartile range of 8.9-10.5 years). Following adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, the relative risk of all-cause death in the highest quartile, compared with the lowest quartile, was 1.33 for saturated fats (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.75, test for trend, P = 0.015), 1.71 for trans fats (95% CI, 1.27-2.31, test for trend, P = 0.0003), 0.77 for EPA (95% CI, 0.59-1.00, test for trend, P = 0.048), and 0.89 for DHA (95% CI, 0.68-1.18, test for trend, P = 0.354). Similar patterns were observed for CVD events. Trans fats presented the largest area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.740, 95% CI, 0.716-0.766) for the prediction of all-cause death. A mutually adjusted two-marker model indicated that saturated fats and trans fats were significant predictors of all-cause death and CVD; however, the other fatty acids were not. In addition, trans fats presented the greatest improvement in net reclassification for all-cause death (7.7%, P = 0.003), followed by EPA (3.8%, P = 0.033). Saturated fats presented the greatest improvement in net reclassification for CVD events (5.6%, P = 0.039). Our data provides strong evidence to support that plasma saturated fats and trans fats can predict all-cause death and CVD more effectively than other fatty acid markers.
    Atherosclerosis 09/2013; 230(1):140-7. · 3.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jul 9, 2014