Developmental changes in the mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) ortholog RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) and its cognate receptor GPR147 in the rat hypothalamus.
ABSTRACT The mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) ortholog RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is considered to act on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and on the pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin release and synthesis. To understand the functional significance of this neuropeptide, we investigated the physiological changes in RFRP at mRNA and peptide levels, as well as at the mRNA level of its cognate receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147), in the rat hypothalamus during development. We also investigated the effects of gonadal steroids on mRNA expression levels of these molecules. In male rats, mRNA expressions of both RFRP and GPR147 increased from postnatal days 12 and 16, peaking at postnatal days 35 and 42, respectively. However, their expressions fell at postnatal day 49. In female rats, mRNA expression of RFRP continued to increase throughout development; mRNA expression of GPR147 in female rats increased from postnatal day 16, peaking at postnatal day 28, but decreased from postnatal day 35. The hypothalamic contents of RFRP on postnatal days 28 and 42 were significantly higher than on postnatal day 4 in male rats, and those on postnatal day 42 were significantly higher than those on postnatal days 4 and 28 in females. Neither orchidectomy nor ovariectomy influenced mRNA expression levels of RFRP or GPR147 in the prepubertal period when endogenous sex steroid levels were low in males and females. Administration of estradiol-17β (E2) increased mRNA expression of RFRP in prepubertal females. These results suggest that the hypothalamic RFRP system changes during development. An ovarian sex steroid, E2, may stimulate mRNA expression of RFRP in the prepubertal period when the basal E2 concentration is low.
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ABSTRACT: The tying capacity of connections between beams and columns is very important in maintaining structural integrity when beam deflections are high due to accidental loads such as fire, but has not so far been thoroughly studied. The project which is the subject of this paper has investigated the robustness of common types of steel connection when subjected to fire. The results reported here concern the performance of web cleat connections in fire, and are drawn largely from experimental investigations. During the testing programme, short cantilever stub beams were subjected to different combinations of shear and tying force. The rotational capacities and resistance to tying forces of their connections at high temperatures were investigated in the presence of other concurrent actions.Test results show that web cleat connections have excellent rotational ductility, and that their resistance reduces rapidly with increase of temperature. Web cleat connections can fail in a number of modes, the selection of which is highly dependent on the connection temperature. Finite element simulations of the test results have been shown to be able to reproduce the behaviour accurately up to the stage at which material failure happens. However, as the ultimate behaviour of connections is often controlled by material fracture, finite element analysis is limited in predicting the ultimate resistance of connections. Investigation of the behaviour of the connection, with some proposed modifications to the general finite element model, showed that finite element analysis can help to interpret the test results and expand the test observations to other similar applications.Engineering Structures. 01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: The paper discusses the effect of stress triaxiality on the onset and evolution of damage in ductile metals. A series of tests including shear tests and experiments on smooth and pre-notched tension specimens was carried out for a wide range of stress triaxialities. The underlying continuum damage model is based on kinematic definition of damage tensors. The modular structure of the approach is accomplished by the decomposition of strain rates into elastic, plastic and damage parts. Free energy functions with respect to fictitious undamaged configurations as well as damaged ones are introduced separately leading to elastic material laws which are affected by increasing damage. In addition, a macroscopic yield condition and a flow rule are used to adequately describe the plastic behavior. Numerical simulations of the experiments are performed and good correlation of tests and numerical results is achieved. Based on experimental and numerical data the damage criterion formulated in stress space is quantified. Different branches of this function are taken into account corresponding to different damage modes depending on stress triaxiality and Lode parameter. In addition, identification of material parameters is discussed in detail.International Journal of Plasticity. 01/2008;
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the experimental results of ten fire tests on medium-scale restrained steel sub-frames to investigate the relative behaviour and robustness of different types of steel joint in steel framed structures in fire. The ten fire tests were designed to investigate the effects of two column sizes (simulating two different levels of axial restraint to the connected beam) and five different types of joint, including fin plate, web cleat, flush endplate, flexible endplate and extended endplate connections. Each test frame, in the form of "rugby goalpost" consisting of one beam and two columns, was connected through two identical beam to column joints. All the steelwork was unprotected except for the top flange of the beam which was protected to simulate the effect of a concrete slab in reducing the beam top flange temperature. The column ends were restrained to examine the effects of axial restraint on the beam and the joints. This paper presents the observations of structural fire behaviour, including joint failure modes and beam limiting temperatures, the development of deflections at beam middle span and axial forces in the joints at elevated temperatures. The main conclusions are: (1) failure (fracture) was observed only in joints when the beam was in catenary action and a variety of joint failure modes were observed which provides valuable data in understanding joint behaviour; (2) the medium-scale steel beams were able to undergo very large deflections (span8∼span6) without failure; (3) the specimens with stronger connections such as extended endplate reached higher than their limiting temperatures, defined as the beam bottom flange temperature at middle span at which the axial load in the beam returned to zero. But the difference in beam limiting temperatures using different types of joint is small, less than 50 °C; also the column size had little effect (less than 30 °C) on the beam limiting temperature; (4) the beams connected to the larger column experienced less deflections, but higher axial force due to the higher axial restraint to the beam, which led to fracture of the joint components in these tests; in contrast, the lighter columns visibly deformed and formed plastic hinges at the joints, but there was little evidence of connection fracture in the test frames using the light columns; (5) the web cleat connection appears to have the best performance. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Journal of Constructional Steel Research - J CONSTR STEEL RES. 01/2011; 67(7):1149-1163.