Effect of glycogen concentration and form on the response to electrical stimulation and rate of post-mortem glycolysis in ovine muscle.
ABSTRACT The associations between the muscle glycogen concentration and form and the rate of post-mortem glycolysis in ovine muscle were investigated. Twenty-two merino wethers (18-24 months) were allocated to either roughage or concentrate pelleted diets for 34 days prior to slaughter. An exercise depletion/repletion model was applied four days prior to slaughter to generate differences in muscle glycogen levels at slaughter. Muscle biopsies were taken from the m. semimembranosus (SM) and m. semitendinosus (ST) prior to and immediately after exercise for muscle glycogen determination. At slaughter, one side was electrically stimulated and both sides were conventionally chilled for 24h. The pH response to electrical stimulation (ΔpH) and the rate of pH decline adjusted to a constant temperature of 38°C over the initial 6h post-mortem period was determined in three muscles (m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum LTL, SM and ST). In addition, the concentrations of glycogen, proglycogen (PG), macroglycogen (MG) and lactate in the three muscles immediately after slaughter were determined. The glycogen loss due to exercise was influenced by diet (P<0.01; concentrate 63% and roughage 73%) but did not differ between muscles. The rates of repletion significantly varied between muscles (SM>ST) and diet (concentrate>roughage). The available glycogen (glycogen(A)) and MG concentrations at slaughter varied significantly depending on the diet (P<0.01) and muscle (P<0.001). The percentage of MG relative to MG+PG varied between muscles (46%, 50% and 57% for the ST, LTL and SM). The concentration and form of available glycogen at slaughter did not influence the response to electrical stimulation after adjusting for pre-stimulation pH (P<0.01). The ΔpH varied significantly between muscles (0.39±0.03, 0.26±0.02 and 0.20±0.03 for the ST, LTL and SM) after adjusting for pre-stimulation pH. Differences in the temperature adjusted rate of pH decline were observed between the muscles (LTL>SM>ST). Importantly, a positive linear association (P=0.05) was found between muscle glycogen(A) concentration at slaughter and the rate of pH decline (temperature adjusted).
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ABSTRACT: Considering the common use of electrical stimulation in meat technologies, it was conducted a study with 10 female goats, in order to determine its effect on improving quality criteria. The goats, kept in the rest period before slaughtering, were stunned and exsanguinated. The subjects were cut into halves through median lines. The right halves were applied 50 Hz, 1.5 minutes long, 30 or 100 Volts of electrical stimulation (ES) and the left halves were kept as control group. The carcasses were studied in +4ºC stable refrigerator conditions for 7 days and pH, water activity, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, color, sensory panel values and total aerobic mesophilic bacterial count values were measured. Our findings showed that ES introduced faster decrease and lower values of pH decline compared to the control group. The application implemented lower values of water holding capacity, yet no significant difference between groups was found. The application had a negative impact on water activity and an increase was observed after the ES. ES increased the drip loss but only 1 st and 7 th days results were found to be highly significant (p01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: Stress is the inevitable consequence of the process of transferring animals from farm to slaughter. The effects of chronic stress on muscle glycogen depletion and the consequent dark cutting condition have been well documented. However, there has been little examination of the consequences of acute stress immediately pre-slaughter on ruminant meat quality. New evidence is emerging to show that non pH-mediated effects on meat quality can occur through pre-slaughter stress in cattle and sheep. This paper reviews the general aspects of pre-slaughter stress in the pre-slaughter context. It then examines the impacts of pre-slaughter stressors on ruminant carcass and meat quality and considers remedial strategies for remediating and preventing pre-slaughter stress. Further quantification of the biological costs of pre-slaughter stress and the consequences to meat quality is required.Meat Science 09/2008; 80(1):12-9. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P < 0.05). Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P < 0.001). ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE L*a*b*) values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (P < 0.05) during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.The Scientific World Journal 01/2012; 2012:574202. · 1.73 Impact Factor