Effect of dietary β-carotene supplementation on beef color stability during display of two muscles from Japanese Black steers.
ABSTRACT Effect of dietary β-carotene supplementation (7500 mg/head/day) for 28 days prior to slaughter on beef color stability during display of M. semimembranosus (SM) and M. longissimus lumborum (LL) from Japanese Black steers was studied. Steak samples from two muscles were over-wrapped with PVC film and displayed under fluorescent lights at 4°C for 12 days. Metmyoglobin percentages of steak samples were determined at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. The β-carotene concentration in both muscles was increased (P<0.001) by dietary β-carotene supplementation. Color display-life of muscles was calculated by the metmyoglobin threshold method based on a threshold value of 20% metmyoglobin. Color display-lives of SM and LL were extended 1.5 and 3 days by dietary β-carotene supplementation, respectively.
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Article: Current research in meat color[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review surveyed recent literature focused on factors that affect myoglobin chemistry, meat color, pigment redox stability, and methodology used to evaluate these properties. The appearance of meat and meat products is a complex topic involving animal genetics, ante- and postmortem conditions, fundamental muscle chemistry, and many factors related to meat processing, packaging, distribution, storage, display, and final preparation for consumption. These factors vary globally, but the variables that affect basic pigment chemistry are reasonably consistent between countries. Essential for maximizing meat color life is an understanding of the combined effects of two fundamental muscle traits, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reduction. In the antemortem sector of research, meat color is being related to genomic quantitative loci, numerous pre-harvest nutritional regimens, and housing and harvest environment. Our knowledge of postmortem chilling and pH effects, atmospheres used for packaging, antimicrobial interventions, and quality and safety of cooked color are now more clearly defined. The etiology of bone discoloration is now available. New color measurement methodology, especially digital imaging techniques, and improved modifications to existing methodology are now available. Nevertheless, unanswered questions regarding meat color remain. Meat scientists should continue to develop novel ways of improving muscle color and color stability while also focusing on the basic principles of myoglobin chemistry.Meat Science 01/2005; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The colour of bovine subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (carcass fat) depends on the age, gender and breed of cattle. Diet is the most important extrinsic factor but its influence depends on the duration of feeding. Cattle produced under extensive grass-based production systems generally have carcass fat which is more yellow than their intensively-reared, concentrate-fed counterparts and this is caused by carotenoids from green forage. Although yellow carcass fat is negatively regarded in many countries, evidence suggests it may be associated with a healthier fatty acid profile and antioxidant content in beef, synonymous with grass feeding. Nonetheless, management strategies to reduce fat colour of grass-fed cattle are sought after. Current research suggests that yellow colour of this tissue is reduced if pasture-fed cattle are converted to a grain-based diet, which results in accretion of adipose tissue and dilution of carotenoids. Colour changes may depend on the initial yellow colour, the carotene and utilisable energy in the finishing diet, the duration of finishing, the amount of fat accumulated during finishing and the rate of utilisation of carotene from body fat. Differences in nutritional strategies which cause differences in fatty acid composition may be reflected by differences in fat colour and carotenoid concentration. Fat colour and carotenoids are prominent among a panoply of measurements which can aid the authentication of the dietary history and thus to some extent, the origin of beef, although this potential utility is complicated by the simultaneous rather than discrete use of forages and concentrates in real production systems.Meat Science 01/2009; 81(1):28-45. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Much research has been conducted and published about metabolic modifiers that increase growth rate, improve feed efficiency, increase carcass leanness, and decrease carcass fatness. Most of these metabolic modifiers have been developed to improve efficiency and profitability of livestock production and to improve carcass composition, with fewer of them developed and researched specifically to improve meat quality. Some of the metabolic modifiers can have negative effects on visual and sensory meat quality, especially when not used as recommended. This review evaluates the various kinds of metabolic modifiers that have been researched for their effects on production efficiency, carcass composition, and meat quality. Nutritional composition of meat generally is improved from use of most of the metabolic modifiers, visual quality is improved by others, but some can have a negative effect on marbling and tenderness. Anabolic steroid implants are very cost effective and practical for beef cattle production but aggressive implants used within 70 days of slaughter or too frequent use of them will reduce tenderness and marbling. Somatatropin and approved β-agonists are very effective in improving growth performance and carcass leanness in pigs, and β-agonists are effective in cattle, but improper use of them can have negative effects on marbling and tenderness. Feeding supplemental levels of vitamin E is quite beneficial for improving meat color and shelf-life of beef, lamb, and pork, whereas not supplementing diets with vitamin A has potential for improving marbling in cattle. Immunocastration shows promise for capitalizing on the efficiency of muscle growth of young boars up to a few weeks before slaughter, at which time boar taint is prevented and marbling is improved by immunocastration. Potential exists for improving the fatty acid profile of lipids and increasing conjugated linoleic acid content in beef through dietary manipulation. Supplementing swine diets with conjugated linoleic acid can improve carcass composition of swine, but is not yet cost effective to use. Dietary inclusion of magnesium, manganese, or chromium in diets of pigs and sheep has potential to improve meat color and water-holding capacity. Although, not all of these metabolic modifiers are approved in all countries, proper use of the ones that are approved offers opportunities for economically improving production efficiency and carcass leanness while maintaining acceptable marbling and tenderness, while some provide opportunities to enhance meat color and quality.Meat Science 09/2007; 77(1):121-35. · 2.75 Impact Factor