We present our experience of forearm lengthening in children with various conditions performed by a single surgeon between 1995 and 2009. A total of 19 children with a mean age of 9.8 years (2.1 to 15.9) at the time of surgery had 22 forearm lengthenings using either an Ilizarov/spatial and Ilizarov circular frame or a monolateral external fixator. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, in whom the purpose of treatment was to restore the relationship between the radius and the ulna, and group B, in whom the objective was to gain forearm length. The mean follow-up after removal of the frame was 26 months (13 to 53). There were ten patients (11 forearms) in group A with a mean radioulnar discrepancy of 2.4 cm (1.5 to 3.3) and nine patients (11 forearms) in group B. In group A, the mean lengthening achieved was 2.7 cm (1.0 to 5.5), with a lengthening index of 11.1 weeks/cm. Equalisation or overcorrection of the discrepancy was achieved in seven of 11 forearms, but lengthening was only partially successful at preventing subluxation or dislocation of the radial head. In group B, the mean lengthening achieved was 3.8 cm (1.9 to 6.8), with a lengthening index of 7.25 weeks/cm. Common complications in both groups were pin-site infection and poor regenerate formation. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis is a worthwhile procedure in children that can improve cosmesis and function, particularly in patients with shortening of both radius and ulna.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze early to midterm radiographic results after forearm lengthening in children with radial longitudinal deficiency.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with radial longitudinal deficiency undergoing distraction osteogenesis with an Ilizarov device. We retrospectively reviewed 8 lengthening procedures in 6 children with respect to distraction details and assessed anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the hand and forearm of the preoperative and postoperative follow-up investigations.
The mean age at time of ulna lengthening was 9.9 years (range, 6.3-14.0 y). The mean follow-up period was 4.7 years (range, 1.0-8.5 y). Mean lengthening of the ulna was 7.0 cm (range, 3.5-8.7 cm), and the mean length gain of the ulna compared with its preoperative length was 75% (range, 42% to 103%). The mean ulna bowing was 25° preoperatively (range, 7° to 42°), 6° after forearm distraction (range, 0° to 14°), and 17° at latest follow-up (range, 0° to 45°). The mean hand-forearm angle was 25° of radial deviation preoperatively (range, 15° ulnar to 60° radial deviation), 11° of radial deviation after distraction (range, 0° to 41°), and 23° at latest follow-up (range, 0° to 45°). We encountered 2 major complications: 1 ulna fracture after removal of the Ilizarov device and 1 insufficient bone regenerate during lengthening.
We achieved both deformity correction and improvement of limb length after distraction osteogenesis with an Ilizarov device. However, some of the deformity-in particular, ulnar bowing and radial deviation of the hand-recurred at midterm follow-up.
The Journal of hand surgery 11/2012; 37(11):2313-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.08.029 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The advent of stem cell-based therapies makes current models of mandibular distraction osteogenesis unwieldy. We thereby designed an isogenic model of distraction osteogenesis whose purpose was to allow for the free transfer of cells and components between rats. As immune response plays a significant role in healing and prevention of infection, an immune-competent mode is desirable rather than an athymic rat/xenograft model. The purposes of this study were as follows: (1) to replicate established models of distraction osteogenesis in a rodent model using an isogenic rat strain, and (2) to characterize the differences between inbred, isogenic rats and outbred rats in mandibular distraction osteogenesis via radiomorphometry and biomechanical response analysis. We demonstrated successful distraction osteogenesis to 5.1 mm in all Lewis (isogenic) rat mandibles as well as all Sprague-Dawley (outbred) rat mandibles, with no significant difference in volume-normalized radiomorphometrics, trending difference in non-volume-normalized radiomorphometrics and significant differences in biomechanical response parameters. We attribute the differences demonstrated to the decreased size of the Lewis rat mandible in comparison to Sprague-Dawley mandibles. We also provide information with caring with the additional needs of the Lewis rat. Given these differences, we find that Lewis rats function as an excellent model for isogenic mandibular distraction osteogenesis, but data procured may not be comparable between isogenic and nonisogenic models.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery 03/2013; 24(2):540-4. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182646c71 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a high rate of forearm deformity in patients with hereditary multiple exostoses, with many patients developing radial head dislocation associated with ulnar shortening.
One hundred and six patients with hereditary multiple exostoses who were fifteen years of age or older were identified with use of a previously compiled database. An independent observer measured flexion and extension of the elbow and wrist as well as supination and pronation of the forearm and recorded the number of exostoses affecting the forearm. Proportional ulnar length was calculated as a percentage of the measured height of the patient ([ulnar length/height] ×100).
Exostoses were identified in 183 (86%) of the 212 forearms that were examined. The distal part of the radius was the most common site and was affected in 73% of the patients. One in seven patients had a dislocated radial head, which was associated with reduced proportional ulnar length (p < 0.001). Both radial head dislocation (p < 0.001) and proportional ulnar length (p < 0.001) were confirmed to be independent risk factors associated with forearm rotation on multivariate regression analysis. In conjunction with other risk factors, both of these factors could be used to predict forearm motion. In addition, a reduced proportional ulnar length was also an independent risk factor for radial head dislocation (p < 0.001).
Proportional ulnar length could be used as a tool to identify patients who are at risk for diminished forearm motion and radial head dislocation during childhood. Surgical intervention could potentially be offered before deterioration in function and dislocation of the radial head occurs.
Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 09/2013; 95(17):1586-92. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.L.00736 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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