Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis in children A REPORT OF 22 CASES

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London WC1N 3JH, UK.
The Bone & Joint Journal (Impact Factor: 3.31). 11/2011; 93(11):1550-5. DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.93B11.27538
Source: PubMed


We present our experience of forearm lengthening in children with various conditions performed by a single surgeon between 1995 and 2009. A total of 19 children with a mean age of 9.8 years (2.1 to 15.9) at the time of surgery had 22 forearm lengthenings using either an Ilizarov/spatial and Ilizarov circular frame or a monolateral external fixator. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, in whom the purpose of treatment was to restore the relationship between the radius and the ulna, and group B, in whom the objective was to gain forearm length. The mean follow-up after removal of the frame was 26 months (13 to 53). There were ten patients (11 forearms) in group A with a mean radioulnar discrepancy of 2.4 cm (1.5 to 3.3) and nine patients (11 forearms) in group B. In group A, the mean lengthening achieved was 2.7 cm (1.0 to 5.5), with a lengthening index of 11.1 weeks/cm. Equalisation or overcorrection of the discrepancy was achieved in seven of 11 forearms, but lengthening was only partially successful at preventing subluxation or dislocation of the radial head. In group B, the mean lengthening achieved was 3.8 cm (1.9 to 6.8), with a lengthening index of 7.25 weeks/cm. Common complications in both groups were pin-site infection and poor regenerate formation. Forearm lengthening by distraction osteogenesis is a worthwhile procedure in children that can improve cosmesis and function, particularly in patients with shortening of both radius and ulna.

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    ABSTRACT: To analyze early to midterm radiographic results after forearm lengthening in children with radial longitudinal deficiency. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with radial longitudinal deficiency undergoing distraction osteogenesis with an Ilizarov device. We retrospectively reviewed 8 lengthening procedures in 6 children with respect to distraction details and assessed anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the hand and forearm of the preoperative and postoperative follow-up investigations. The mean age at time of ulna lengthening was 9.9 years (range, 6.3-14.0 y). The mean follow-up period was 4.7 years (range, 1.0-8.5 y). Mean lengthening of the ulna was 7.0 cm (range, 3.5-8.7 cm), and the mean length gain of the ulna compared with its preoperative length was 75% (range, 42% to 103%). The mean ulna bowing was 25° preoperatively (range, 7° to 42°), 6° after forearm distraction (range, 0° to 14°), and 17° at latest follow-up (range, 0° to 45°). The mean hand-forearm angle was 25° of radial deviation preoperatively (range, 15° ulnar to 60° radial deviation), 11° of radial deviation after distraction (range, 0° to 41°), and 23° at latest follow-up (range, 0° to 45°). We encountered 2 major complications: 1 ulna fracture after removal of the Ilizarov device and 1 insufficient bone regenerate during lengthening. We achieved both deformity correction and improvement of limb length after distraction osteogenesis with an Ilizarov device. However, some of the deformity-in particular, ulnar bowing and radial deviation of the hand-recurred at midterm follow-up. Therapeutic IV.
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of stem cell-based therapies makes current models of mandibular distraction osteogenesis unwieldy. We thereby designed an isogenic model of distraction osteogenesis whose purpose was to allow for the free transfer of cells and components between rats. As immune response plays a significant role in healing and prevention of infection, an immune-competent mode is desirable rather than an athymic rat/xenograft model. The purposes of this study were as follows: (1) to replicate established models of distraction osteogenesis in a rodent model using an isogenic rat strain, and (2) to characterize the differences between inbred, isogenic rats and outbred rats in mandibular distraction osteogenesis via radiomorphometry and biomechanical response analysis. We demonstrated successful distraction osteogenesis to 5.1 mm in all Lewis (isogenic) rat mandibles as well as all Sprague-Dawley (outbred) rat mandibles, with no significant difference in volume-normalized radiomorphometrics, trending difference in non-volume-normalized radiomorphometrics and significant differences in biomechanical response parameters. We attribute the differences demonstrated to the decreased size of the Lewis rat mandible in comparison to Sprague-Dawley mandibles. We also provide information with caring with the additional needs of the Lewis rat. Given these differences, we find that Lewis rats function as an excellent model for isogenic mandibular distraction osteogenesis, but data procured may not be comparable between isogenic and nonisogenic models.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of distraction osteogenesis through external and internal techniques to primarily treat bone defects after tumor resection is a powerful and versatile surgical technique, but it is relatively uncommon. The techniques of distraction osteogenesis are increasingly refined. As a result, the indications for its use are expanding, while the problems historically encountered can be prevented or minimized. As such, the use of distraction osteogenesis for orthopaedic oncology is increasing. The appeal of distraction osteogenesis is its ability to reconstruct the defect with healthy host bone, which is the most durable reconstructive option. Given how many years a pediatric patient has to rely on any given reconstruction, distraction osteogenesis gives the highest chance of long-term survival. This article aims to review the safety and efficacy of the increasing trend of distraction osteogenesis in high-grade lesions. Although currently indicated in only a narrow group of patients, it is important to recognize this surgical technique as a viable reconstructive option. Distraction osteogenesis is likely to expand as a primary surgical reconstructive option in high-grade lesions as the techniques evolve for both internal and external lengthening.
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