Determinants of Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Cohort of Primiparous Periurban Peruvian Mothers

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Journal of Human Lactation (Impact Factor: 1.98). 11/2011; 28(1):45-54. DOI: 10.1177/0890334411422703
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors aimed to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among 117 Peruvian mothers planning to breastfeed exclusively. Data were collected on days 0 and 3, and months 1, 3, and 6. Exclusive breastfeeding status was evaluated with a 24-hour recall of infant diet. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 74%, 72%, and 35% at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. At 3 months, lower maternal education, greater breastfeeding frequency (day 3), greater breast pain (day 3), and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use (3 months) were associated with EBF, after adjusting for EBF intentions. At 6 months, greater infant birth weight and mother-not employed were associated with EBF, after controlling for EBF intentions. More educated and working mothers, and infants with lower birth weight should be targeted in interventions to promote EBF in urban Peru. Research is also warranted to explore the factors linking depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use and breast pain with EBF duration.


Available from: Susana L Matias, May 04, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at six months. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 and 4 months postpartum had better QOL in late pregnancy than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in QOL scores at 6 months postpartum. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 months postpartum experienced less breastfeeding difficultties during one month postpartum than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In attempts to promote EBF, mothers with poor QOL or breastfeeding difficulties in early postpartum should be identified and helped.
    International Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; 2014:156049. DOI:10.1155/2014/156049
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Among indigenous Mam-Mayan women, breastfeeding practices may be intertwined with cultural influences during the early postpartum period. Our study explored whether beliefs regarding transmission of emotions through breast milk, the feeding of agüitas or temascal (traditional sauna) use were associated with achievement of the World Health Organization infant feeding recommendations and if these cultural practices served as moderators of the relationship between optimal breastfeeding practices and infant anthropometry. We recruited 190 mother-infant dyads at infant age < 46 days. Data on breastfeeding and cultural practices were collected via questionnaire. Infant length, weight, and head circumference were measured and z scores were calculated. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine determinants of initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, breastfeeding frequency, breastfeeding exclusivity, and infant weight-for-age z score (WAZ). Mothers who delivered at the traditional midwife's house (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5) and those who did not believe in the transmission of susto (fright) through breast milk (OR = 2.4) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum. Higher breastfeeding frequency was observed among mothers who spent more time in the temascal. Initiating early breastfeeding within 1 hour postpartum was the sole infant feeding practice positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding and WAZ. Our investigation in the Western Highlands of Guatemala has highlighted the link between cultural practices and beliefs during lactation, breastfeeding practices and infant growth. Public health practitioners need to understand how local cultural practices influence early initiation of breastfeeding to promote adequate infant weight. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Journal of Human Lactation 02/2015; 31(1):172-84. DOI:10.1177/0890334414560194 · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Changes in health care access and birthing practices may pose barriers to optimal breastfeeding in modernizing rural populations. Objectives: We evaluated temporal and maternal age-related trends in birth and breastfeeding in a modernizing Maya agriculturalist community. We tested 2 hypotheses: (1) home births would be associated with better breastfeeding outcomes than hospital births, and (2) vaginal births would be associated with better breastfeeding outcomes than cesarean births. Methods: We interviewed 58 Maya mothers (ages 21-85) regarding their births and breastfeeding practices. General linear models were used to evaluate trends in birthing practices and breastfeeding outcomes (timing of breastfeeding initiation, use of infant formula, age of introduction of complementary feeding, and breastfeeding duration). We then compared breastfeeding outcomes by location (home or hospital) and mode of birth (vaginal or cesarean). Results: Timing of breastfeeding initiation and the rate of formula feeding both increased significantly over time. Younger mothers introduced complementary foods earlier, breastfed for shorter durations, and formula fed more than older mothers. Vaginal hospital births were associated with earlier breastfeeding initiation and longer breastfeeding durations than home births. Cesarean births were associated with later breastfeeding initiation, shorter breastfeeding durations, and more formula feeding than vaginal hospital births. Conclusion: We have observed temporal and maternal age-related trends toward suboptimal breastfeeding patterns in the Maya community. Contrary to our first hypothesis, hospital births per se were not associated with negative breastfeeding outcomes. In support of our second hypothesis, cesarean versus vaginal births were associated with negative breastfeeding outcomes.
    Journal of Human Lactation 11/2014; 31(1). DOI:10.1177/0890334414557177 · 1.98 Impact Factor