Structural basis of p38α regulation by hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
Nature Chemical Biology (Impact Factor: 13.22). 11/2011; 7(12):916-924. DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.707
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT MAP kinases regulate essential cellular events, including cell growth, differentiation and inflammation. The solution structure of a complete MAPK-MAPK-regulatory protein complex, p38α-HePTP, was determined, enabling a comprehensive investigation of the molecular basis of specificity and fidelity in MAPK regulation. Structure determination was achieved by combining NMR spectroscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering data with a new ensemble calculation-refinement procedure. We identified 25 residues outside of the HePTP kinase interaction motif necessary for p38α recognition. The complex adopts an extended conformation in solution and rarely samples the conformation necessary for kinase deactivation. Complex formation also does not affect the N-terminal lobe, the activation loop of p38α or the catalytic domain of HePTP. Together, these results show how the downstream tyrosine phosphatase HePTP regulates p38α and provide for fundamentally new insights into MAPK regulation and specificity.


Available from: Bartosz Różycki, Apr 19, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38γ (also known as MAPK12) and its specific phosphatase PTPN3 (also known as PTPH1) cooperate to promote Ras-induced oncogenesis. We determined the architecture of the PTPN3-p38γ complex by a hybrid method combining x-ray crystallography, small-angle x-ray scattering, and chemical cross-linking coupled to mass spectrometry. A unique feature of the glutamic acid-containing loop (E-loop) of the phosphatase domain defined the substrate specificity of PTPN3 toward fully activated p38γ. The solution structure revealed the formation of an active-state complex between p38γ and the phosphatase domain of PTPN3. The PDZ domain of PTPN3 stabilized the active-state complex through an interaction with the PDZ-binding motif of p38γ. This interaction alleviated autoinhibition of PTPN3, enabling efficient tyrosine dephosphorylation of p38γ. Our findings may enable structure-based drug design targeting the PTPN3-p38γ interaction as an anticancer therapeutic.
    Science Signaling 10/2014; 7(347):ra98. DOI:10.1126/scisignal.2005722 · 7.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tyrosine phosphorylation barcode encoded in C-terminus of HER2 and its ubiquitination regulate diverse HER2 functions. PTPN18 was reported as a HER2 phosphatase; however, the exact mechanism by which it defines HER2 signaling is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that PTPN18 regulates HER2-mediated cellular functions through defining both its phosphorylation and ubiquitination barcodes. Enzymologic characterization and three crystal structures of PTPN18 in complex with HER2 phospho-peptides revealed the molecular basis for the recognition between PTPN18 and specific HER2 phosphorylation sites, which assumes two distinct conformations. Unique structural properties of PTPN18 contribute to the regulation of sub-cellular phosphorylation networks downstream of HER2, which are required for inhibition of HER2-mediated cell growth and migration. Whereas the catalytic domain of PTPN18 blocks lysosomal routing and delays the degradation of HER2 by dephosphorylation of HER2 on pY(1112), the PEST domain of PTPN18 promotes K48-linked HER2 ubiquitination and its rapid destruction via the proteasome pathway and an HER2 negative feedback loop. In agreement with the negative regulatory role of PTPN18 in HER2 signaling, the HER2/PTPN18 ratio was correlated with breast cancer stage. Taken together, our study presents a structural basis for selective HER2 dephosphorylation, a previously uncharacterized mechanism for HER2 degradation and a novel function for the PTPN18 PEST domain. The new regulatory role of the PEST domain in the ubiquitination pathway will broaden our understanding of the functions of other important PEST domain-containing phosphatases, such as LYP and PTPN12.Cell Research advance online publication 1 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.99.
    Cell Research 08/2014; 24(9). DOI:10.1038/cr.2014.99 · 11.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structural biology elucidates atomic structures of macromolecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, and their complexes to understand the basic mechanisms of their functions. Among proteins that pose the most difficult problems to current efforts are those which have several large domains connected by long, flexible polypeptide segments. Although abundant and critically important in biological cells, such proteins have proven intractable by conventional techniques. This gap has recently led to the advancement of hybrid methods that use state-of-the-art computational tools to combine complementary data from various high- and low-resolution experiments. In this review, we briefly discuss the individual experimental techniques to illustrate their strengths and limitations, and then focus on the use of hybrid methods in structural biology. We describe how representative structures of dynamic multi-protein complexes are obtained utilizing the EROS hybrid method that we have co-developed.
    Journal of Physics Condensed Matter 11/2014; 26(46):463103. DOI:10.1088/0953-8984/26/46/463103 · 2.22 Impact Factor