Article

Twist contributes to hormone resistance in breast cancer by downregulating estrogen receptor-α.

Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 11/2011; 31(27):3223-34. DOI: 10.1038/onc.2011.483
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The role of estrogen receptor-α (ER) in breast cancer development, and as a primary clinical marker for breast cancer prognosis, has been well documented. In this study, we identified the oncogenic protein, TWIST1 (Twist), which is overexpressed in high-grade breast cancers, as a potential negative regulator of ER expression. Functional characterization of ER regulation by Twist was performed using Twist low (MCF-7, T-47D) and Twist high (Hs 578T, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7/Twist) expressing cell lines. All Twist high expressing cell lines exhibited low ER transcript and protein levels. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter assays, we demonstrated that Twist could directly bind to E-boxes in the ER promoter and significantly downregulate ER promoter activity in vitro. Functionally, Twist overexpression caused estrogen-independent proliferation of breast cells, and promoted hormone resistance to the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen and selective estrogen receptor down-regulator fulvestrant. Importantly, this effect was reversible on downregulating Twist. In addition, orthotopic tumors generated in mice using MCF-7/Twist cells were resistant to tamoxifen. These tumors had high vascular volume and permeability surface area, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Mechanistically, Twist recruited DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) to the ER promoter, leading to a significantly higher degree of ER promoter methylation compared with parental cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation that Twist interacted with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) at the ER promoter, causing histone deacetylation and chromatin condensation, further reducing ER transcript levels. Functional re-expression of ER was achieved using the demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, and the HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid. Finally, an inverse relationship was observed between Twist and ER expression in human breast tumors. In summary, the regulation of ER by Twist could be an underlying mechanism for the loss of ER activity observed in breast tumors, and may contribute to the generation of hormone-resistant, ER-negative breast cancer.

0 Followers
 · 
128 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is increasingly clear that inflammation-associated mechanisms can affect breast cancer progression and modulate response to treatment. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is the principal biomarker and therapeutic target for endocrine therapies in breast cancer. Over 70% of patients are ERα positive at diagnosis and are candidates for endocrine therapy. However, ERα positive tumors can become resistant to endocrine therapy. Multiple mechanisms of endocrine resistance have been proposed including ERα suppression. This review discusses the relationship between intratumoral inflammation and endocrine resistance with a particular focus on inflammation-mediated suppression of ERα.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 11/2014; DOI:10.1530/ERC-14-0096 · 4.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in the United States, and survival rates are lower for patients with metastases and/or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC; ER, PR, and Her2 negative). Understanding the mechanisms of cancer metastasis is therefore crucial to identify new therapeutic targets and develop novel treatments to improve patient outcomes. A potential target is the TWIST1 transcription factor, which is often overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers and is a master regulator of cellular migration through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we demonstrate an siRNA-based TWIST1 silencing approach with delivery using a modified poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. Our results demonstrate that SUM1315 TNBC cells efficiently take up PAMAM-siRNA complexes, leading to significant knockdown of TWIST1 and EMT-related target genes. Knockdown lasts up to one week after transfection and leads to a reduction in migration and invasion, as determined by wound healing and transwell assays. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can deliver siRNA to xenograft orthotopic tumors and siRNA remains in the tumor for at least four hours after treatment. These results suggest that further development of dendrimer-based delivery of siRNA for TWIST1 silencing may lead to a valuable adjunctive therapy for patients with TNBC.
    BioMed Research International 02/2015; 2015:382745. DOI:10.1155/2015/382745 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the wide improvements in breast cancer (BC) detection and adjuvant treatment, BC is still responsible for approximately 40,000 deaths annually in the United States. Novel biomarkers are fundamental to assist clinicians in BC detection, risk stratification, disease subtyping, prediction of treatment response, and surveillance, allowing a more tailored approach to therapy in both primary and metastatic settings. In primary BC, the development of molecular profiling techniques has added prognostic and predictive information to conventional biomarkers - estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Moreover, the application of next-generation sequencing and reverse-phase protein microarray methods in the metastatic setting holds the promise to further advance toward a personalized management of cancer. The improvement in our understanding on BC biology associated with the study of the genomic aberrations characterizing the most common molecular subtypes allows us to explore new targets for drug development. Finally, the integration of cancer stem cell-targeted therapies and immune therapies in future combination regimens increases our chances to successfully treat a larger proportion of women with more aggressive and resistant metastatic disease. This article reviews the current state of novel biological markers for BC, the evidence to demonstrate their clinical validity and utility, and the implication for therapeutic targeting.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 04/2015; 17(1):60. DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0560-9 · 5.88 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
78 Downloads
Available from
May 20, 2014