Systolic blood pressure below 110 mmHg is associated with increased mortality in penetrating major trauma patients: Multicentre cohort study.
ABSTRACT Non-invasive systolic blood pressure (SBP) measurement is a commonly used triaging tool for trauma patients. A SBP of <90mmHg has represented the threshold for hypotension for many years, but recent studies have suggested redefining hypotension at lower levels. We therefore examined the association between SBP and mortality in penetrating trauma patients.
We conducted a prospective cohort study in adult (≥16 years) penetrating trauma patients. Patients were admitted to hospitals belonging to the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) between 2000 and 2009. The main outcome measure was the association between SBP and mortality at 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for the influence of age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) on mortality were used.
3444 patients with a median age of 30 years (IQR 22.5-41.4), SBP of 126mmHg (IQR 107-142), ISS of 9 (IQR 9-14) and GCS of 15 (IQR 15-15), were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, severity of injury and level of consciousness showed a cut-off for SBP at <110mmHg, after which increased mortality was observed. Compared with the reference group with SBP 110-129mmHg, mortality was doubled at SBP 90-109mmHg, was four-fold higher at 70-89mmHg and 10-fold higher at <70mmHg. SBP values ≥150mmHg were associated with decreased mortality.
We recommend that penetrating trauma patients with a SBP<110mmHg are triaged to resuscitation areas within dedicated, appropriately specialised, high-level care trauma centres.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the mortality rates of patients with and without diabetes mellitus after acute large-dose exposure to organophosphate insecticides. All patients without diabetes mellitus were traced to examine the long-term risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Previous reports indicated that organophosphate exposure might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. We analyzed the records of 118 patients referred to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for management of intentional organophosphate poisoning between 2000 and 2011. Patients were stratified by diabetes mellitus status. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and mortality data were analyzed. Most patients were middle aged (53.45 +/- 16.20 years) and male (65.3%) and were referred to our hospital after a relatively short amount of time had elapsed since poisoning (median 3.0 hours). 18 (15.2%) of 118 patients died, including 15 (13.8%) of 109 patients without diabetes mellitus and 3 (33.3%) of 9 with diabetes mellitus. There was no significant difference in mortality between these groups (P = 0.117). In a multivariate Cox regression model, hypotension (P = 0.000), respiratory failure (P = 0.042), coma (P = 0.023), and corrected QT interval prolongation (P = 0.002) were significant risk factors for mortality. Conversely, diabetes mellitus status was not a significant variable in this model. At routine outpatient follow up a median of 1.25 months post exposure, random blood glucose measurements gave no evidence of new-onset diabetes in patients without pre-existing diabetes. Diabetes mellitus status might not increase mortality risk following acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates, and the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus also might be minimal in the short term. Larger prospective studies with formal testing for diabetes at later times post-exposure are required.Environmental Health 03/2014; 13(1):11. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Triage at emergency department is performed to identify those patients who are relatively more serious and require immediate attention and treatment. Despite current methods of triage, trauma continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality.North American journal of medical sciences. 09/2014; 6(9):450-2.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Shock is defined as a change of circulation which results in hypoxia at the tissue level. Lactate and base deficit (BD) are associated with a high risk of multiple organ dysfunction in trauma patients. In this study we evaluated the influence of early recognition of shock in trauma patients. Methods In a retrospective study, relevant data were collected from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (RUNMC) database between January 2009 and December 2010. Vital parameters were taken at the accident scene, and patients were divided into four shock classes. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on arrival in the emergency department. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0. Statistical significance was assumed at p ≤ 0.05. Results A total of 255 patients were included. Patients who suffered from prehospital shock, and those who were intubated prior to hospital admittance showed a bad outcome, presenting with a more severe metabolic acidosis, higher ISS and higher mortality. There was a significant difference for bicarbonate and BD between shockclass I + II and shockclass III + IV, respectively 22.7 vs. 19.7 and −3.4 vs. −6.9. Intubated patients had a decreased bicarbonate and BD compared to not intubated patients, respectively 21.81 vs. 23.24 and −5.08 vs. −2.38. Mortality and ISS were higher in patients in shock class III and IV. Significant differences in serum lactate levels were not found. Conclusions Prehospital shock influences patient outcome; outcome of patients is related to initial shock classification. Further validation of our shock classification, however, is necessary.European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 04/2013; 40(2):169-173. · 0.38 Impact Factor