BACE1 Processing of NRG1 Type III Produces a Myelin-Inducing Signal but Is Not Essential for the Stimulation of Myelination

Department of Neurogenetics, Max-Planck-Institute of Experimental Medicine, Goettingen, Germany.
Glia (Impact Factor: 6.03). 02/2012; 60(2):203-17. DOI: 10.1002/glia.21255
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Myelin sheath thickness is precisely adjusted to axon caliber, and in the peripheral nervous system, neuregulin 1 (NRG1) type III is a key regulator of this process. It has been proposed that the protease BACE1 activates NRG1 dependent myelination. Here, we characterize the predicted product of BACE1-mediated NRG1 type III processing in transgenic mice. Neuronal overexpression of a NRG1 type III-variant, designed to mimic prior cleavage in the juxtamembrane stalk region, induces hypermyelination in vivo and is sufficient to restore myelination of NRG1 type III-deficient neurons. This observation implies that the NRG1 cytoplasmic domain is dispensable and that processed NRG1 type III is sufficient for all steps of myelination. Surprisingly, transgenic neuronal overexpression of full-length NRG1 type III promotes hypermyelination also in BACE1 null mutant mice. Moreover, NRG1 processing is impaired but not abolished in BACE1 null mutants. Thus, BACE1 is not essential for the activation of NRG1 type III to promote myelination. Taken together, these findings suggest that multiple neuronal proteases collectively regulate NRG1 processing.

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    • "NRG1 is one of the most biologically plausible schizophrenia candidate susceptibility genes (Kanakry et al. 2007; Talmage 2008). Extensive studies in NRG1 function have shown that it impacts different aspects of the nervous system such as myelination (Taveggia et al. 2008; Velanac et al. 2012), radial glia migration (Poluch and Juliano 2007) and neurotransmitter receptor expression (Stefansson et al. 2002; Corfas et al. 2004). Many of these functions are mediated through external interaction of NRG1 with the receptor ErbB4. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant neuregulin 1-ErbB4 signaling has been implicated in schizophrenia. We previously identified a novel schizophrenia-associated missense mutation (valine to leucine) in the NRG1 transmembrane domain. This variant inhibits formation of the NRG1 intracellular domain (ICD) and causes decreases in dendrite formation. To assess the global effects of this mutation, we used lymphoblastoid cell lines from unaffected heterozygous carriers (Val/Leu) and non-carriers (Val/Val). Transcriptome data showed 367 genes differentially expressed between the two groups (Val/Val N = 6, Val/Leu N = 5, T test, FDR (1 %), α = 0.05, -log10 p value >1.5). Ingenuity pathway (IPA) analyses showed inflammation and NRG1 signaling as the top pathways altered. Within NRG1 signaling, protein kinase C (PKC)-eta (PRKCH) and non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC) were down-regulated in heterozygous carriers. Novel kinome profiling (serine/threonine) was performed after stimulating cells (V/V N = 6, V/L N = 6) with ErbB4, to induce release of the NRG1 ICD, and revealed significant effects of treatment on the phosphorylation of 35 peptides. IPA showed neurite outgrowth (six peptides) as the top annotated function. Phosphorylation of these peptides was significantly decreased in ErbB4-treated Val/Val but not in Val/Leu cells. These results show that perturbing NRG1 ICD formation has major effects on cell signaling, including inflammatory and neurite formation pathways, and may contribute significantly to schizophrenia pathophysiology.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 05/2014; 121(5). DOI:10.1007/s00702-013-1142-6 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "In particular, NRG1 type III represented a reasonable candidate to study because it is thought to act as a biochemical sensor of axon calibre (Michailov et al., 2004). The NRG1 type III full-length protein is processed to its biologically active form (75 kDa) by proteolytic cleavage (Velanac et al., 2012). Developmental analysis of NRG1 isoforms revealed a clear correlation between the active form of NRG1 type III and the onset of myelin basic protein expression, a marker for myelination, in sciatic nerves (Supplementary Fig. 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Axonal surface proteins encompass a group of heterogeneous molecules, which exert a variety of different functions in the highly interdependent relationship between axons and Schwann cells. We recently revealed that the tumour suppressor protein merlin, mutated in the hereditary tumour syndrome neurofibromatosis type 2, impacts significantly on axon structure maintenance in the peripheral nervous system. We now report on a role of neuronal merlin in the regulation of the axonal surface protein neuregulin 1 important for modulating Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. Specifically, neuregulin 1 type III expression is reduced in sciatic nerve tissue of neuron-specific knockout animals as well as in biopsies from seven patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. In vitro experiments performed on both the P19 neuronal cell line and primary dorsal root ganglion cells demonstrate the influence of merlin on neuregulin 1 type III expression. Moreover, expression of ERBB2, a Schwann cell receptor for neuregulin 1 ligands is increased in nerve tissue of both neuron-specific merlin knockout animals and patients with neurofibromatosis type 2, demonstrating for the first time that axonal merlin indirectly regulates Schwann cell behaviour. Collectively, we have identified that neuronally expressed merlin can influence Schwann cell activity in a cell-extrinsic manner.
    Brain 12/2013; 137(2). DOI:10.1093/brain/awt327 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    • "BACE cleavage also produces the C-terminal fragment which can be degraded by γ-secretase. Though the C-terminal fragment is not necessary for myelination [32], it may be translocated to the nucleus of neurons and can repress apoptosis and promote survival [33]. Diabetes-induced changes in the expression of NRG1 Type III produced by BACE cleavage were verified using two antibodies which targeted either the CRD located within the ~75 kDa N-terminal fragment or an epitope within the C-terminal fragment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aberrant neuron/glia interactions can contribute to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases and we have previously demonstrated that enhanced activation of Erb B2, which is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, can contribute to the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). In peripheral nerves, Erb B receptors are activated by various members of the neuregulin-1 (NRG1) family including NRG1 Type I, NRG1 Type II and NRG1 Type III to regulate Schwann cell (SC) growth, migration, differentiation and dedifferentiation. Alternatively, Erb B2 activity can be negatively regulated by association with the Erb B2-interacting protein, erbin. Since the effect of diabetes on the expression of NRG1 isoforms and erbin in peripheral nerve are unknown, the current study determined whether changes in NRG1 isoforms and erbin may be associated with altered Erb B2 signaling in DPN. Swiss Webster mice were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) and after 12 weeks of diabetes, treated with erlotinib, an inhibitor of Erb B2 activation. Inhibition of Erb B2 signaling partially reversed several pathophysiologic aspects of DPN including a pronounced sensory hypoalgesia, nerve conduction velocity deficits and the decrease in epidermal nerve fiber innervation. We also observed a decrease of NRG1 Type III but an increase of NRG1 Type I level in diabetic sural nerves at early stage of diabetes. With disease progression, we detected reduced erbin expression and enhanced MAPK pathway activity in diabetic mice. Inhibition of Erb B2 receptor suppressed MAPK pathway activity in treated-diabetic sural nerves. These results support that hyperglycemia may impair NRG1/Erb B2 signaling by disrupting the balance between NRG1 isoforms, decreasing the expression of erbin and correspondingly activating the MAPK pathway. Together, imbalanced NRG1 isoforms and downregulated erbin may contribute to the dysregulation of Erb B2 signaling in the development of DPN.
    07/2013; 1(1):39. DOI:10.1186/2051-5960-1-39
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