The associations of parental under-education and unemployment on the risk of preterm birth: 2003 Korean National Birth Registration database.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the associations of combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment on the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in Korea.
Data on 427,857 singleton births were obtained from the National Birth Registration (NBR) database in 2003 and analyzed. Parental education and parental employment status were combined as exposure for analysis. Place of birth, sex, marital status, parental age and parity were included for analysis of unconditional multiple logistic regressions. PTB was defined as birth before a gestational age of 37 complete weeks.
Group of the lowest educational level, below high school, had the highest odds of PTB in both father and mother in multivariable analysis [odds ratio (OR) 1.15 and 1.16, respectively]. After combining parental educational status for the multivariable analysis, the highest probability of PTB was in families where both parents had below college level education (OR 1.22). As for paternal employment, the multivariable analysis showed an increased rate of PTB occurred where the father was unemployed (OR 1.11). After combining the employment status of both parents, the multivariable analysis revealed that PTB was only significant in families where both parents were unemployed (OR 1.09).
We found that combined parental low educational level and combined parental unemployment increased the likelihood of preterm birth.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives The infant mortality rate is a sensitive and commonly used indicator of the socio-economic status of a population. Generally, studies investigating the relationship between infant mortality and socio-economic status have focused on full-term infants in Western populations. This study examined the effects of education level and employment status on full-term and preterm infant mortality in Korea. Data were collected from the National Birth Registration Database and merged with data from the National Death Certification Database. Study design Prospective cohort study. Methods In total, 1,316,184 singleton births registered in Korea's National Birth Registration Database between January 2004 and December 2006 were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results Paternal and maternal education levels were inversely related to infant mortality in preterm and full-term infants following multivariate adjusted logistic models. Parental employment status was not associated with infant mortality in full-term infants, but was associated with infant mortality in preterm infants, after adjusting for place of birth, gender, marital status, paternal age, maternal age and parity. Conclusions Low paternal and maternal education levels were found to be associated with infant mortality in both full-term and preterm infants. Low parental employment status was found to be associated with infant mortality in preterm infants but not in full-term infants. In order to reduce inequalities in infant mortality, public health interventions should focus on providing equal access to education.Public health 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2013.12.010 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective In East Asia the recently increased number of marriages in response to pregnancy is an important social issue. This study evaluated the association of marriage preceded by pregnancy (bridal pregnancy) with obstetric outcomes among live births in Korea. Methods In this population-based study, 1,152,593 first singleton births were evaluated from data registered in the national birth registration database from 2004 to 2008 in Korea. In the study population, the pregnancy outcomes among live births from the bridal pregnancy group (N = 62,590) were compared with the outcomes of the post-marital pregnancy group (N = 564,749), composed of women who gave birth after 10 months but before 24 months of marriage. The variables preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks gestation) and low birth weight (LBW; <2.5 kg) were used to determine the primary outcome. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results The socio-demographic factors among the bridal pregnancy group were associated with a social disadvantage and particular risk factors. In the subgroup analyses of maternal age, differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes from bridal pregnancy were identified between women in the following age group: (i) ≤19, (ii) 20–39, and (iii) ≥40 years. After the multivariate analysis, the aORs for each age group were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.15–1.89), 1.76 (1.70–1.83), and 1.13 (0.77–1.66), respectively, for PTB and 0.92 (0.70–1.21), 1.60 (1.53–1.66), and 1.11 (0.71–1.74), respectively, for LBW. In the adjusted logistic regression models, bridal pregnancy was associated with PTB (1.76, 1.69–1.82) and LBW (1.53, 1.48–1.59). Conclusion Pregnancy outcomes among live births from bridal pregnancies are associated with higher risks for PTB and LBW in Korea.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103178. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103178 · 3.53 Impact Factor