Pulmonary artery sling: Current results with cardiopulmonary bypass
ABSTRACT We have used cardiopulmonary bypass with left pulmonary artery reimplantation for pulmonary artery sling repair since 1985. This review presents our current results with this technique, emphasizing the importance of diagnosis and treatment of frequently associated tracheal stenosis.
Since 1985, 34 patients have undergone pulmonary artery sling repair using a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. Age ranged from 9 days to 43 years (mean 2.1 ± 7.5 years, median 0.2 years). Twenty-seven patients (79%) had tracheal stenosis secondary to complete cartilage tracheal rings. All patients had preoperative airway imaging with rigid bronchoscopy, and since 2000 all patients have had computed tomography imaging of the chest with 3-dimensional reconstruction (n = 14). Tracheal repair has included pericardial patch tracheoplasty (n = 7), tracheal autograft (n = 10), tracheal resection (n = 4), and slide tracheoplasty (n = 5). All patients had an echocardiogram, and cardiac lesions repaired simultaneously included atrial septal defect (4), tetralogy of Fallot (2), and ventricular septal defect (1). One patient had a severely hypoplastic right lung, and 3 patients had an absent right lung. In these patients, the left pulmonary artery was translocated anterior to the trachea. In all other patients, the left pulmonary artery was reimplanted into the main pulmonary artery.
There have been no early deaths or complications related to the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Median hospital stay was 24 days. There have been 4 late deaths. Two late deaths were the result of complications of tracheal surgery (1 pericardial patch [6 months postoperatively] and 1 autograft [1.7 years postoperatively]). One child died of biliary atresia (0.2 years postoperatively), and 1 child died of pneumonia (5.8 years postoperatively). All recent tracheal stenosis repairs have been with slide tracheoplasty. All left pulmonary arteries are patent with a mean percent flow by perfusion scan of 41% ± 13%. Older patients (n = 2) have noted a significant improvement in exercise tolerance.
Pulmonary artery sling is best repaired with median sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, and left pulmonary artery reimplantation. This resulted in uniformly patent left pulmonary arteries in all patients. Preoperative computed tomography imaging, echocardiography, and bronchoscopy are essential for precise operative planning. The frequently associated tracheal stenosis is best repaired with slide tracheoplasty.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Congenital tracheal anomalies occur in 1:10,000 births and can be associated with congenital cardiac disease. This patient presented with right mainstem atresia, right bronchoesophageal fistula without esophageal atresia (H-type esophageal lung), and left pulmonary arterial (PA) sling. Taking this into consideration, surgical management included right pneumonectomy and placement of expandable prosthesis into the thoracic cavity to buttress the mediastinum and prevent tracheal deviation-induced kinking of the PA sling, which provided pulmonary blood flow to the remaining functional lung. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of esophageal lung in conjunction with a PA sling, as well as the first documented use of an expandable prosthesis to prevent acute postpneumonectomy syndrome. This case can provide clinicians with increased clinical knowledge for treatment of this rare and potentially lethal combination of congenital anomalies.Chest 06/2014; 145(6):1402-6. DOI:10.1378/chest.13-2343 · 7.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our study describes the results from surgical slide tracheoplasty (STP) in children with long segment tracheal stenosis. Demographic and preoperative conditions, operative details, and outcome measures, including the need for endoscopic airway intervention and mortality, were collected for children undergoing STP between February 1995 and December 2012. One hundred one patients (median age, 5.8 months; range, 5 days-15 years) underwent STP. Seventy-two patients (71.3%) had associated cardiovascular anomalies. Preoperative ventilation was necessary in 56 patients (55.4%), whereas extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required in 10 patients (9.9%). Abnormal bronchial arborization was present in 39 children (38.6%), which included 13 patients (12.8%) with an anomalous right upper lobe bronchus and 17 patients (16.8%) with tracheal trifurcation. Airway stenosis extended into 1 or both bronchi in 24 patients (23.7%) and preoperative malacia was present in 24 patients (23.7%). STP was extended into the bronchus in 47 patients (46.5%). Overall survival was 88.2% (mortality in 12 patients). Post-STP balloon dilation was necessary in 45 patients (44.6%) and stenting was required in 22 patients (21.8%). Multivariate analysis revealed preoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (P < .05), preoperative malacia (P < .001), and bronchial stenosis (P < .05) to be adverse predictors of survival. Preoperative malacia was a significant risk factor for stenting (P < .05). STP is a versatile and reliable technique associated with low morbidity and mortality when compared with previous strategies for children with long segment tracheal stenosis. The presence of preoperative bronchomalacia is a significant risk factor for death and postoperative stenting.The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 02/2014; 147(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.02.069 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pulmonary artery sling frequently accompanies various degrees of tracheal stenosis. The authors reviewed their surgical outcomes for pulmonary artery sling from two institutions. From 1997 to September 2011, 16 patients with pulmonary artery sling underwent surgical treatment. Their median age was 4.6 months and their body weight 6.2 kg at the time of the operation. Of the 16 patients, 12 showed preoperative respiratory symptoms such as recurrent airway infection or dyspnea, with three of these patients receiving ventilator therapy preoperatively. Most of the patients showed various degrees of tracheal luminal stenosis and stenotic length, except for three patients who did not show significant airway stenosis. Left pulmonary artery reimplantation was performed for all the patients, but an accompanying tracheoplasty was performed for only two patients (one patch augmentation and one sliding tracheoplasty). After surgery, early extubation and intensive lung care were performed. Two operative mortalities occurred: one due to cardiac tamponade associated with postoperative bleeding and one due to aggravation of preexisting multiorgan failure. Two late mortalities occurred: one due to airway obstruction by repetitive granulation tissue growing at the tracheoplasty site and one due to pneumonia. The 12 living patients, including 11 patients who did not undergo tracheal surgery, showed no clinically significant airway problems at their last follow-up visit. The surgical outcomes for pulmonary artery sling without tracheoplasty were acceptable. The authors think tracheoplasty may be avoided by intensive postoperative airway management for a significant portion of the patients with pulmonary artery sling and tracheal stenosis.Pediatric Cardiology 08/2012; 34(3). DOI:10.1007/s00246-012-0481-7 · 1.55 Impact Factor