Increased tear osmolarity in patients with severe cases of conjunctivochalasis.
ABSTRACT To evaluate and compare tear osmolarity in different grades of conjunctivochalasis.
Forty subjects divided into four groups based on grading of conjunctivochalasis by lid-paralell conjunctival fold (LIPCOF) test and tear osmolarity evaluated by TearLab osmometer. Schirmer test, tear film break up time (BUT) and vital staining were also performed.
Patients with mild and moderate conjunctivochalasis showed similar tear osmolarity to normal subjects. A significant increase (P < 0.008) of osmolarity was found in patients with severe conjunctivochalasis. A significant increase of osmolarity was found in patients with abnormal BUT (P = 0.018) and in patients with positive lissamine-green staining (P = 0.023). No association could be elicited when results of osmolarity were compared to those of Schirmer test or when compared those of fluorescein staining to osmolarity, respectively.
Hyperosmolarity of tear was reported as a fact of ocular surface inflammation. While in mild and moderate conjunctivochalasis tear osmolarity was similar to normal controls, increased osmolarity can refer to the presence of ocular surface inflammation in these patients with severe conjunctivochalasis.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether exposure of human corneal epithelial cells to hyperosmotic stress activates the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway, and stimulates production of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs): gelatinase (MMP-9), collagenases (MMP-1 and -13), and stromelysin (MMP-3). Primary human corneal epithelial cells cultured in normal osmolar medium (312 mOsM) were exposed to media with higher osmolarity (350-500 mOsM) achieved by adding NaCl, with or without SB202190, an inhibitor of the JNK pathway; dexamethasone; or doxycycline for different lengths of time. The conditioned media were collected after 24 hours of exposure for zymography and ELISA. Total RNA was extracted from cultures treated for 6 hours and subjected to semiquantitative RT-PCR. Cells treated for 5 to 60 minutes were lysed in RIPA buffer and subjected to Western blot with phospho (p)-specific antibodies against p-JNK and p-c-Jun. JNK1 activation was also detected with an immunoassay system. The concentrations of MMP-9, -1, and -3 proteins in 24-hour conditioned media of corneal epithelial cells progressively increased as the media's osmolarity was increased from 312 to 500 mOsM by the addition of NaCl. The concentration of MMP-13 progressively increased to a peak at 450 mOsM. Active p-JNK-1, p-JNK-2, and p-c-Jun were detected by Western blot as early as 5 minutes and peaked at 60 minutes in cells exposed to hyperosmolar media. The levels of p-JNK-1, p-JNK-2, and p-c-Jun correlated positively with the osmolarity of the culture media. The p-JNK inhibitor SB202190 and doxycycline markedly inhibited the stimulation of p-JNK-1, p-JNK-2, and p-c-Jun, as well as MMP-9, -1, -13, and -3 at both the mRNA and protein levels in the cells exposed to hyperosmolar media. Expression and production of MMP-9, -1, -13, and -3 by human corneal epithelial cells correlated positively with increasing media osmolarity. This increase was mediated at least in part through activation of the JNK SAPK pathway. Doxycycline, an agent used to treat MMP-mediated ocular surface disease, inhibited the hyperosmolarity-induced MMP production and JNK activation. The relevance of these findings to stimulated production of MMPs by the elevated tear osmolarity in dry eye remains to be determined.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 01/2005; 45(12):4302-11. · 3.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conjunctivochalasis, a secondary cause of the watery eye, is frequently seen in the older age group as an elevation of the bulbar conjunctiva lying along the lateral or central lower lid margin. A prospective, interventional, case-controlled clinical and histopathological study was conducted. The relevant features of 18 patients (29 eyes) who had their conjunctivochalasis resected as part of the surgical management of their watery eye syndrome were examined. In the control group, tissue was obtained from an age matched series of 24 normal subjects undergoing routine cataract surgery. 24 controls (24 specimens) and 18 patients (29 specimens) had conjunctival strip biopsies, taken from the usual lid margin level bulbar conjunctiva in line with the inferior limbus (controls), and the clinically apparent conjunctivochalasis (patients). These were submitted for histological study. 23 of 24 control sections demonstrated normal conjunctival variation. Four of 29 patient specimens demonstrated a chronic non-granulomatous conjunctivitis, while three eyes of the patient group (two patients) demonstrated features of elastosis. Of the four patients who had the inflammatory infiltrates, three had functional nasolacrimal duct obstructions (FNLDOs) and one had a primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO). Of the two patients who had elastosis, one had an FNLDO and the other had normal lacrimal drainage and was Jones 1 positive. Six of 18 patients--that is, seven of 29 specimens of conjunctivochalasis demonstrated signs of elastosis or of chronic non-granulomatous inflammation. Clinically, patients had a spectrum of aetiologies of their watery eye syndrome.British Journal of Ophthalmology 04/2005; 89(3):302-5. · 2.73 Impact Factor
- Scandinavian journal of rheumatology. Supplement 02/1986; 61:19-21.