Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: in vitro studies on the interaction of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and low-sulfated heparin, with platelet factor 4 and anti-PF4/heparin antibodies.
ABSTRACT Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant. Because of its negative charge, it forms complexes with positively charged platelet factor 4 (PF4). This can induce anti-PF4/heparin IgG Abs. Resulting immune complexes activate platelets, leading to the prothrombotic adverse drug reaction heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT requires treatment with alternative anticoagulants. Approved for HIT are 2 direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI; lepirudin, argatroban) and danaparoid. They are niche products with limitations. We assessed the effects of the DTI dabigatran, the direct factor Xa-inhibitor rivaroxaban, and of 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH; a partially desulfated heparin with minimal anticoagulant effects) on PF4/heparin complexes and the interaction of anti-PF4/heparin Abs with platelets. Neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban had any effect on the interaction of PF4 or anti-PF4/heparin Abs with platelets. In contrast, ODSH inhibited PF4 binding to gel-filtered platelets, displaced PF4 from a PF4-transfected cell line, displaced PF4/heparin complexes from platelet surfaces, and inhibited anti-PF4/heparin Ab binding to PF4/heparin complexes and subsequent platelet activation. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban seem to be options for alternative anticoagulation in patients with a history of HIT. ODSH prevents formation of immunogenic PF4/heparin complexes, and, when given together with heparin, may have the potential to reduce the risk for HIT during treatment with heparin.
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ABSTRACT: This report describes studies into the pathophysiology of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The IgG fraction from each of nine patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia caused heparin-dependent platelet release of radiolabeled serotonin. Both the Fc and the Fab portions of the IgG molecule were required for the platelet reactivity. The platelet release reaction could be inhibited by the Fc portion of normal human or goat IgG, and patient F(ab')2, but not F(ab')2 from healthy controls. These results suggested that the Fab portion of IgG binds to heparin forming an immune complex and the immune complexes initiate the platelet release reaction by binding to the platelet Fc receptors. To directly challenge this hypothesis, we preincubated the serotonin-labeled platelets with the monoclonal antibody against the platelet Fc receptor (IV.3). This monoclonal antibody completely inhibited the release reaction caused by heparin and patient sera, as well as heat aggregated IgG, but did not block collagen or thrombin-induced platelet release. Heparin-dependent platelet release also could be inhibited in vitro by the addition of monocytes and neutrophils, but not by red cells, presumably because the Fc receptors on the phagocytic cells have a higher binding affinity for IgG complexes than do platelets. Platelets from patients with congenital deficiencies of specific glycoproteins Ib and IX (Bernard-Soulier syndrome) and IIb and IIIa (Glanzmann's thrombasthenia) displayed normal heparin-dependent release indicating that the release reaction did not require the participation of these glycoproteins. These studies indicate that heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is an IgG-heparin immune complex disorder involving both the Fab and Fc portion of the IgG molecule.Blood 10/1988; 72(3):925-30. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), a disorder in which anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies cause platelet activation and hypercoagulability, requires alternative (non-heparin) anticoagulation. Treatment options include direct thrombin inhibitors [lepirudin and argatroban (approved), and bivalirudin], danaparoid (approved) (mixture of anticoagulant glycosaminoglycans), or fondaparinux (synthetic heparin-mimicking pentasaccharide). PF4-heparin complexes form at optimal stoichiometric ratios. To compare the effects of these various non-heparin anticoagulants in disrupting the formation of PF4-heparin complexes, and PF4-containing immune complexes. Sera were obtained from patients with serologically confirmed HIT. The effects of the alternative anticoagulants on PF4 and PF4-heparin complex interactions with platelets, as well as HIT antibody binding and platelet activation, were investigated. Danaparoid at very low concentrations increased PF4 binding to platelets. In therapeutic concentrations, however, it decreased PF4 binding to platelets (P = 0.0004), displaced PF4-heparin complexes from platelets (P = 0.0033) and PF4 from the surface of a PF4-transfected HEK-293 EBNA cell line expressing the PF4 receptor CXCR3-B (P = 0.0408), reduced PF4-heparin complex size (P = 0.025), inhibited HIT antibody binding to PF4-heparin complexes (P = 0.001), and prevented platelet activation by HIT antibodies (P = 0.046). Although fondaparinux also interfered with PF4 binding to platelets, HIT antibody binding to PF4-heparin complexes, and activation of platelets by HIT antibodies, these effects occurred only at supratherapeutic concentrations. The direct thrombin inhibitors had no effect at any concentrations. Danaparoid uniquely interferes with the pathogenesis of HIT by disrupting PF4-containing immune complexes at therapeutic dose concentrations. It is possible that these effects contribute to its therapeutic efficacy.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 11/2008; 6(12):2160-7. · 6.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interaction of sulphated oligosaccharides (SO) with platelets and the antibody of heparin-associated thrombocytopenia (HAT type II) was investigated. 3H-heparin binding to platelets was inhibited by different SO, depending on their grade of sulphation. Dextran sulphate, pentosan polysulphate, and heparin were more effective than were LMW heparins. De-N-sulphated heparin and a LMW heparinoid (Org 10172) had no effect. Platelets preincubated with high-grade SO and washed, released serotonin in the presence of HAT sera without additional heparin. Platelets preincubated with HAT sera and then washed were not activated when heparin was added. Only high-grade SO which inhibited heparin binding to platelets caused platelet activation with HAT sera. However, low- and high-grade SO in high concentrations (0.11 g/l) inhibited serotonin release induced by HAT sera and heparin. 32P-phosphorylation of platelet proteins was enhanced by HAT-IgG and heparin and by heat-aggregated IgG, and was inhibited by the moab IV.3. High SO concentrations inhibited only the effect of HAT-IgG and not that of aggregated IgG. We assume that the antigen in HAT involves a releasable platelet protein with a binding site for SO. This was corroborated by studies with an anti-platelet factor 4 antibody causing Fc-receptor dependent platelet activation inhibitable by high SO concentrations.British Journal of Haematology 09/1993; 84(4):711-6. · 4.94 Impact Factor