Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: in vitro studies on the interaction of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and low-sulfated heparin, with platelet factor 4 and anti-PF4/heparin antibodies.

Institut für Immunologie und Transfusionsmedizin, Universitä Greifswald, Sauerbruchstrasse, Greifswald, Germany.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 11/2011; 119(5):1248-55. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2011-05-353391
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Heparin is a widely used anticoagulant. Because of its negative charge, it forms complexes with positively charged platelet factor 4 (PF4). This can induce anti-PF4/heparin IgG Abs. Resulting immune complexes activate platelets, leading to the prothrombotic adverse drug reaction heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). HIT requires treatment with alternative anticoagulants. Approved for HIT are 2 direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI; lepirudin, argatroban) and danaparoid. They are niche products with limitations. We assessed the effects of the DTI dabigatran, the direct factor Xa-inhibitor rivaroxaban, and of 2-O, 3-O desulfated heparin (ODSH; a partially desulfated heparin with minimal anticoagulant effects) on PF4/heparin complexes and the interaction of anti-PF4/heparin Abs with platelets. Neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban had any effect on the interaction of PF4 or anti-PF4/heparin Abs with platelets. In contrast, ODSH inhibited PF4 binding to gel-filtered platelets, displaced PF4 from a PF4-transfected cell line, displaced PF4/heparin complexes from platelet surfaces, and inhibited anti-PF4/heparin Ab binding to PF4/heparin complexes and subsequent platelet activation. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban seem to be options for alternative anticoagulation in patients with a history of HIT. ODSH prevents formation of immunogenic PF4/heparin complexes, and, when given together with heparin, may have the potential to reduce the risk for HIT during treatment with heparin.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present review will briefly summarize the interplay between coagulation and inflammation, highlighting possible effects of direct inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin beyond anticoagulation. Additionally, the rationale for the use of the new direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for indications such as cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (CAT), mechanical heart valves, thrombotic anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) will be explored. Published data on patients with cancer or mechanical heart valves treated with DOAC will be discussed, as well as planned studies in APS and HIT. Although at the present time published evidence is insufficient for recommending DOAC in the above-mentioned indications, there are good arguments in favor of clinical trials investigating their efficacy in these contexts. Direct inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin may reveal interesting effects beyond anticoagulation as well.
    Seminars in Hematology 04/2014; 51(2):152-6. · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin, such as enoxaparin, is standard of care in these patients. Recently, three direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs; dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban), have been approved for this indication, but their cost effectiveness is still unclear as it has usually been extrapolated from surrogate venographic outcomes in clinical trials. Objective To conduct a pharmacoeconomic evaluation of the DOACs versus subcutaneous (SC) enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE after THR or TKR surgery. Methods A decision-tree model was developed using TreeAge Pro 2011 to compare the cost utility and cost effectiveness of the DOACs with SC enoxaparin, with separate models for THR and TKR over a 3-month postoperative time horizon from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System. The probabilities of events (symptomatic VTE, clinically relevant bleedings, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and deaths) were derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis. We used local cost estimates (€2013) and utility values were obtained from the literature. We reported costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and symptomatic VTE events. We conducted sensitivity analyses to evaluate parameter uncertainty. Results The average costs per 1,000 patients treated with enoxaparin were higher than costs incurred by dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban in THR (€435,208 vs. €283,574, €257,900 and €212,472, respectively) and TKR (€336,550 vs. €219,856, €251,734 and €201,946, respectively), with cost savings ranging from €151,634 to €222,766 in THR, and from €84,816 to €134,604 in TKR. Cost differences were largely driven by differences in costs associated with drug administration. The average QALYs per 1,000 patients treated were very similar for enoxaparin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban in THR (199.34, 198.83, 199.08 and 199.68, respectively) and TKR (198.95, 199.41, 198.75 and 199.97, respectively). Rivaroxaban (in TKR and THR) and apixaban (in THR) avoided additional symptomatic VTE events compared with enoxaparin. Sensitivity analyses generally supported the robustness of the analysis to changes in model parameters. Conclusions Our model suggests, based on its underlying assumptions and data, that the DOACs are cost-saving alternatives to SC enoxaparin for the prevention of VTE after THR or TKR, in the Spanish healthcare setting.
    PharmacoEconomics 06/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review the recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and in applying this knowledge to the treatment of patients with suspected and proven HIT.
    Current opinion in hematology. 07/2014;