High Temperature Requirement Factor A1 (HTRA1) Gene Regulates Angiogenesis through Transforming Growth Factor-beta Family Member Growth Differentiation Factor 6
ABSTRACT Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified genetic variants in the promoter region of the high temperature requirement factor A1 (HTRA1) gene associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As a secreted serine protease, HTRA1 has been reported to interact with members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and regulate their signaling pathways. Growth differentiation factor 6 (GDF6), a member of the TGF-β family, is involved in ectoderm patterning and eye development. Mutations in GDF6 have been associated with abnormal eye development that may result in microphthalmia and anophthalmia. In this report, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6982567 A/G near the GDF6 gene that is significantly associated with AMD (p value = 3.54 × 10(-8)). We demonstrated that the GDF6 AMD risk allele (rs6982567 A) is associated with decreased expression of the GDF6 and increased expression of HTRA1. Similarly, the HTRA1 AMD risk allele (rs10490924 T) is associated with decreased GDF6 and increased HTRA1 expression. We observed decreased vascular development in the retina and significant up-regulation of GDF6 gene in the RPE layer, retinal and brain tissues in HTRA1 knock-out (htra1(-/-)) mice as compared with the wild-type counterparts. Furthermore, we showed enhanced SMAD signaling in htra1(-/-) mice. Our data suggests a critical role of HTRA1 in the regulation of angiogenesis via TGF-β signaling and identified GDF6 as a novel disease gene for AMD.
SourceAvailable from: Robert F Mullins[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common and devastating disease that can result in severe visual dysfunction. Over the last decade, great progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that contribute to AMD, many of which lie in genes involved in the complement cascade. In this review we discuss the significance of complement activation in AMD, particularly with respect to the formation of the membrane attack complex in the aging choriocapillaris. We review the clinical, histological and biochemical data that indicate that vascular loss in the choroid occurs very early in the pathogenesis of AMD, and discuss the potential impact of vascular dropout on the retinal pigment epithelium, Bruch's membrane and the photoreceptor cells. Finally, we present a hypothesis for the pathogenesis of early AMD and consider the implications of this model on the development of new therapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 12/2014; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2014.11.005 · 9.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human serine protease high temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is highly expressed in the placental tissue, especially in the last trimester of gestation. This suggests that HTRA1 is involved in placental formation and function. With the aim of a better understanding of the role of HTRA1 in the placenta, candidate substrates were screened in a placenta protein extract using a gel-based mass spectrometric approach. Protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin cytoplasmic 1, tropomyosin beta chain and ten further proteins were identified as candidate substrates of HTRA1. Among the identified candidate substrates, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) was considered to be of particular interest because of its important role as protease inhibitor. For investigation of alpha-1-antitrypsin as substrate of HTRA1 synthetic peptides covering parts of the sequence of alpha-1-antitrypsin were incubated with HTRA1. By mass spectrometry a specific cleavage site was identified after met-382 (AIPM382↓383SIPP) within the reactive centre loop of alpha-1-antitrypsin, resulting in a C-terminal peptide comprising 36 amino acids. Proteolytic removal of this peptide from alpha-1-antitrypsin results in a loss of its inhibitor function. Beside placental alpha-1-antitrypsin the circulating form in human plasma was also significantly degraded by HTRA1. Taken together, our data suggest a link between the candidate substrates alpha-1-antitrypsin and the function of HTRA1 in the placenta in the syncytiotrophoblast, the cell layer attending to maternal blood in the villous tree of the human placenta. Data deposition: Mass spectrometry (MS) data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000473.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109483. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109483 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth differentiation factor 6 (GDF6) has been reported to be a novel disease gene for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Caucasians. This study aimed to investigate whether rs6982567 was associated with neovascular AMD (nAMD) or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in a Han Chinese cohort. A total of 612 participants (251 PCV patients, 157 nAMD patients and 204 controls) were included in this study. The SNaPshot system was used to genotype the rs6982567. PLINK software was used to evaluate the genotypes and allele frequencies of patients and controls. The allele frequencies of rs6982567 were not significantly associated with nAMD, PCV or PCV and nAMD combined. Subjects with the TT genotype had a 2.42-fold greater risk of PCV (95% confidence interval, 1.07-5.43, p = 0.0290) than subjects with CC genotype. A recessive model of rs6982567 was statistically significantly associated with PCV (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.05; p = 0.0351). However, the association did not withstand stringent Bonferroni correction. There were no significant differences in genotype distributions or models in nAMD. There was a possible weak association between the rs6982567 near GDF6 and PCV in this replication study with an independent Han Chinese cohort. A complete survey of the GDF6 locus with a larger sample size is needed in future studies.BMC Ophthalmology 11/2014; 14(1):140. DOI:10.1186/1471-2415-14-140 · 1.08 Impact Factor