IL-22, but not IL-17, dominant environment in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
ABSTRACT Both patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and those with atopic dermatitis (AD) have pruritus, T(H)2-biased T cells, and a tendency to have bacterial infections, suggesting a common pathologic basis for these two diseases. Recently, interleukin (IL)-22-producing T cells were reported in skin of patients with AD. In this study, we investigated expression levels of T(H)22- and T(H)17-related molecules in lesional skin and sera isolated from patients with CTCL.
Skin biopsies and sera were collected from patients with CTCL or psoriasis and from healthy volunteers. Protein and mRNA expression levels of IL-22, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-23p19, IL-10, IL-4, CCL20, CCR6, IL-8, and IL-20 were examined in lesional tissue and a subset of these molecules in sera. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was also assessed in lesional skin of CTCL and psoriasis by immunohistochemistry.
IL-22, IL-10, IL-4, CCL20, and CCR6 mRNA and protein levels, but not IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-23p19, IL-8, or IL-20, were significantly elevated in lesional skin of CTCL. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was detected in epidermis of CTCL skin. Moreover, serum IL-22, IL-10, and CCL20 levels were increased in CTCL and correlated with disease severity.
Our results suggest that IL-22 is important in establishing the tumor microenvironment for CTCL. Enhanced expression of CCL20 may explain epidermal hyperplasia and migration of CCR6(+) cells, such as Langerhans cells, into lesional skin. Relatively low expression of IL-17 may explain the lack of neutrophils in lesions of CTCL, which correlates with bacterial infections that commonly occur in skin affected by CTCL.
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ABSTRACT: B-cell-activating factor belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) is known for its role in the survival and maturation of B cells. It has been recently suggested that BAFF also plays important roles in T-cell activation in T-cell mediated diseases such as psoriasis. To investigate the role of BAFF in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). BAFF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in skin samples (24 CTCL cases and seven healthy controls) and in skin-derived fibroblasts (five CTCL cases and five healthy controls) was examined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We also performed immunohistochemical staining for BAFF and its receptors. Serum BAFF levels were measured in patients with CTCL (n=46), atopic dermatitis (n=36) or psoriasis (n=27) and 27 healthy controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lesional skin of CTCL contained higher levels of BAFF mRNA than normal skin and the expression levels correlated with disease activity. BAFF mRNA expression levels were elevated in fibroblasts from CTCL skin. Tumour cells in the lesional skin of CTCL expressed BAFF and its receptors, while fibroblasts expressed only BAFF. Serum BAFF levels of CTCL patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls and correlated with types of skin lesions and clinical stages. They also significantly correlated with serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor and lactate dehydrogenase levels. BAFF expression in CTCL skin and serum BAFF levels are significantly increased and correlate with the severity of CTCL. These results suggest that BAFF may have important roles in the development of CTCL.British Journal of Dermatology 04/2012; 167(2):359-67. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The importance of CD4 T cells in orchestrating the immune system and their role in inducing effective T cell-mediated therapies for the treatment of patients with select established malignancies are undisputable. Through a complex and balanced array of direct and indirect mechanisms of cellular activation and regulation, this functionally diverse family of lymphocytes can potentially promote tumor eradication, long-term tumor immunity, and aid in establishing and/or rebalancing immune cell homeostasis through interaction with other immune cell populations within the highly dynamic tumor environment. However, recent studies have uncovered additional functions and roles for CD4 T cells, some of which are independent of other lymphocytes, that can not only influence and contribute to tumor immunity but paradoxically promote tumor growth and progression. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of the various CD4 T cell lineages and their signature cytokines in disease progression and/or regression. We discuss their direct and indirect mechanistic interplay among themselves and with other responding cells of the antitumor response, their potential roles and abilities for "plasticity" and memory cell generation within the hostile tumor environment, and their potentials in cancer treatment and immunotherapy.Frontiers in Oncology 01/2013; 3:63.