Exogenous or endogenous Toll-like receptor ligands: which is the MVP in tumorigenesis?
ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of pattern recognition receptors sensing microbial components and triggering an immune response against pathogens. In addition to their role in anti-infection immunity, increasing evidence indicates that engagement of TLRs can promote cancer cell survival and proliferation, induce tumor immune evasion, and enhance tumor metastasis and chemoresistance. Recent studies have demonstrated that endogenous molecules or damage-associated molecular patterns released from damaged/necrotic tissues are capable of activating TLRs and that the endogenous ligands-mediated TLR signaling is implicated in the tumor development and affects the therapeutic efficacy of tumors. Since both exogenous and endogenous TLR ligands can initiate TLR signaling, which is the most valuable player in tumor development becomes an interesting question. Here, we summarize the effect of TLR signaling on the development and progression of tumors, and discuss the role of exogenous and endogenous TLR ligands in the tumorigenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most frequent primary brain tumor, it has poor prognosis, and it remains refractory to current treatment. The success of temozolomide (TMZ) appears to be limited by the occurrence of chemoresistance. Recently, we report the use of pertussis toxin as adjuvant immunotherapy in a C6 glioma model; showing a decrease in tumoral size, it induced selective cell death in Treg cells, and it elicited less infiltration of tumoral macrophages. Here, we evaluated the cytotoxic effect of pertussis toxin in combination with TMZ for glioma treatment, both in vitro and in vivo RG2 glioma model. We determined cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, and autophagy on treated RG2 cells through flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot assays. Twenty-eight rats were divided in four groups (n = 7) for each treatment. After intracranial implantation of RG2 cells, animals were treated with TMZ (10 mg/Kg/200 μl of apple juice), PTx (2 μg/200 μl of saline solution), and TMZ + PTx. Animals without treatment were considered as control. We found an induction of apoptosis in around 20 % of RG2 cells, in both single treatments and in their combination. Also, we determined the presence of autophagy vesicles, without any modifications in the cell cycle in the TMZ - PTx-treated groups. The survival analyses showed an increase due to individual treatments; while in the group treated with the combination TMZ - PTx, this effect was enhanced. We show that the concomitant use of pertussis toxin plus TMZ could represent an advantage to improve the glioma treatment.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 12/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The snake venom MT-III is a group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzyme with functional and structural similarities with mammalian pro-inflammatory sPLA2s of the same group. Previously, we demonstrated that MT-III directly activates the innate inflammatory response of macrophages, including release of inflammatory mediators and formation of lipid droplets (LDs). However, the mechanisms coordinating these processes remain unclear. In the present study, by using TLR2-/- or MyD88-/- or C57BL/6 (WT) male mice, we report that TLR2 and MyD88 signaling have a critical role in MT-III-induced inflammatory response in macrophages. MT-III caused a marked release of PGE2, PGD2, PGJ2, IL-1β and IL-10 and increased the number of LDs in WT macrophages. In MT-III-stimulated TLR2-/- macrophages, formation of LDs and release of eicosanoids and cytokines were abrogated. In MyD88-/- macrophages, MT-III-induced release of PGE2, IL-1β and IL-10 was abrogated, but release of PGD2 and PGJ2 was maintained. In addition, COX-2 protein expression seen in MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages was abolished in both TLR2-/- and MyD88-/- cells, while perilipin 2 expression was abolished only in MyD88-/- cells. We further demonstrated a reduction of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and a release of the TLR2 agonists palmitic and oleic acid from MT-III-stimulated WT macrophages compared with WT control cells, thus suggesting these fatty acids as major messengers for MT-III-induced engagement of TLR2/MyD88 signaling. Collectively, our findings identify for the first time a TLR2 and MyD88-dependent mechanism that underlies group IIA sPLA2-induced inflammatory response in macrophages.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e93741. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Solid tumors are infiltrated by immune cells where macrophages and senescent T cells are highly represented. Within the tumor microenvironment, a cross-talk between the infiltrating cells may occur conditioning the characteristic of the in situ immune response. Our previous work showed that tumors induce senescence of T cells, which are powerful suppressors of lympho-proliferation. In this study, we report that Tumor-Induced Senescent (TIS)-T cells may also modulate monocyte activation. To gain insight into this interaction, CD4+ or CD8+TIS-T or control-T cells were co-incubated with autologous monocytes under inflammatory conditions. After co-culture with CD4+ or CD8+TIS-T cells, CD14+ monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) exhibit a higher expression of CD16+ cells and a reduced expression of CD206. These Mo/Ma produce nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; however, TIS-T cells do not modify phagocyte capacity of Mo/Ma. TIS-T modulated-Mo/Ma show a higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL-1β and IL-6) and angiogenic factors (MMP-9, VEGF-A and IL-8) and a lower IL-10 and IP-10 secretion than monocytes co-cultured with controls. The mediator(s) present in the supernatant of TIS-T cell/monocyte-macrophage co-cultures promote(s) tubulogenesis and tumor-cell survival. Monocyte-modulation induced by TIS-T cells requires cell-to-cell contact. Although CD4+ shows different behavior from CD8+TIS-T cells, blocking mAbs against T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin protein 3 and CD40 ligand reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic factors production, indicating that these molecules are involved in monocyte/macrophage modulation by TIS-T cells. Our results revealed a novel role for TIS-T cells in human monocyte/macrophage modulation, which may have deleterious consequences for tumor progression. This modulation should be considered to best tailor the immunotherapy against cancer.Cell Death & Disease 01/2014; 5:e1507. · 6.04 Impact Factor