Anti-Inhibitor Coagulant Complex Prophylaxis in Hemophilia with Inhibitors
ABSTRACT Patients with severe hemophilia A and factor VIII inhibitors are at increased risk for serious bleeding complications and progression to end-stage joint disease. Effective strategies to prevent bleeding in such patients have not yet been established.
We enrolled patients with hemophilia A who were older than 2 years of age, had high-titer inhibitors, and used concentrates known as bypassing agents for bleeding in a prospective, randomized, crossover study comparing 6 months of anti-inhibitor coagulant complex (AICC), infused prophylactically at a target dose of 85 U per kilogram of body weight (±15%) on 3 nonconsecutive days per week, with 6 months of on-demand therapy (AICC at a target dose of 85 U per kilogram [±15%] used for bleeding episodes). The two treatment periods were separated by a 3-month washout period, during which patients received on-demand therapy for bleeding. The primary outcome was the number of bleeding episodes during each 6-month treatment period.
Thirty-four patients underwent randomization; 26 patients completed both treatment periods and could be evaluated per protocol for the efficacy analysis. As compared with on-demand therapy, prophylaxis was associated with a 62% reduction in all bleeding episodes (P<0.001), a 61% reduction in hemarthroses (P<0.001), and a 72% reduction in target-joint bleeding (≥3 hemarthroses in a single joint during a 6-month treatment period) (P<0.001). Thirty-three randomly assigned patients received at least one infusion of the study drug and were evaluated for safety. One patient had an allergic reaction to the study drug.
AICC prophylaxis at the dosage evaluated significantly and safely decreased the frequency of joint and other bleeding events in patients with severe hemophilia A and factor VIII inhibitors. (Funded by Baxter BioScience; Pro-FEIBA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00221195.).
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- "Uncertainty continues about the ITI product source, timing, dosing regimen, and the use of immune modulation. There is also new evidence to support the use of prophylaxis with a bypassing agent in patients with inhibitors, although it is unclear which inhibitor patients are the best candidates for this therapy [Konkle et al. 2007; Leissinger et al. 2011a; Young et al. 2011]. While significant progress has been made in the care of patients with inhibitors there remain many unanswered questions. "
ABSTRACT: Factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy is the foundation of treatment in hemophilia A and is effective unless a patient develops an alloantibody (inhibitor) against exogenous FVIII. Inhibitor development is currently the most significant treatment complication seen in patients with hemophilia and is associated with considerable morbidity and a decreased quality of life. The development of an inhibitor is the result of a complex interaction between a patient's immune system and genetic and environmental risk factors. The mainstay of treatment is the eradication of the inhibitor through immune tolerance. This review summarizes the current evidence regarding inhibitor risk factors, eradication, and hemostatic bypassing agents.02/2013; 4(1):59-72. DOI:10.1177/2040620712464509
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ABSTRACT: Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is the most serious bleeding symptom in haemophiliacs, resulting in high rates of mortality and disabling sequelae. The Association of Italian Haemophilia Centres carried out a retrospective survey (1987-2008) of ICH occurring in haemophiliacs with the goals to establish: (i) incidence, location of bleeding, death rate and disabling sequels; (ii) risk factors for ICH; and (iii) treatment used during the acute phase of ICH and for recurrence prevention. A total of 112 ICH episodes had occurred in 88 patients (78 haemophilia A, 10 haemophilia B), 24 of whom experienced recurrences. The cumulative hazard of ICH for the whole cohort over the entire follow-up period was 26.7 per 1000 patients, and the annualized rate of ICH was 2.50 events per 1000 patients (95% CI 1.90-3.31). The risk of ICH was higher in the youngest children (24.4 per 1000, 95% CI 12.7-47.0 in the first year of age and 14.9, 95% CI 7.1-31.4 in the second year of age) and then progressively rose again after the age of 40. Univariate, bivariate (age-adjusted) and multivariate analysis investigating the effects of patient characteristics on ICH occurrence showed that haemophilia severity and inhibitor status were strongly associated with ICH [severe vs. mild, HR 3.96 (2.39-6.57); inhibitor vs. non-inhibitor 2.52 (1.46-4.35)]. HCV infection was also associated with the risk of ICH [HR 1.83 (1.25-2.69)]. Therapeutic suggestions based upon our experience to control ICH recurrence are provided.Haemophilia 07/2011; 18(1):39-45. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2011.02611.x · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the past, patients with severe hemophilia have suffered a substantially reduced quality of life with frequent bleeding episodes, disabling arthropathy, and shorter life expectancy. In addition, methods of treatment and management have been costly and time-consuming, and have placed a considerable burden on patients' physical and psychological well-being. With the advent of the on-demand therapy and prophylactic treatment paradigm, patients have been able to receive care with less interruption of daily activities. Treatments may be more challenging for hemophiliacs with inhibitors to replacement factor; however, recent advances in the use of bypassing agents and immune tolerance therapy have enabled them to aggressively manage their disease while maintaining their independence. This review focuses on the challenges of treating such a severe hemophiliac through examination of the lifetime experience of a young adult male with a severe form of congenital hemophilia A. At this stage of his life, the patient has minimal disabilities and is inhibitor-free through optimal care and strong family support. His aspiration to pursue a productive life has led him to a career in medicine. After receiving his medical degree, he pursued a specialty in the treatment of hemophilia. By assisting other hemophilia patients, he exemplifies both the rewards of persevering through episodes of bleeding and other complications and the fact that disabilities can be minimized when managed meticulously and in a timely fashion to enable a productive and dignified life.Hematology Research and Reviews 01/2012; 3:17-23. DOI:10.2147/JBM.S30479