Effect of CYP2C19*2 and *3 Loss-of-Function Alleles on Platelet Reactivity and Adverse Clinical Events in East Asian Acute Myocardial Infarction Survivors Treated With Clopidogrel and Aspirin
ABSTRACT As compared with whites, East Asians more often carry the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) allele with the CYP2C19*3 variant. The influence of the CYP2C19 LOF alleles (*2 and *3) on clopidogrel response and clinical outcomes in East Asians with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has not been reported. We sought to evaluate the effect of the CYP2C19 variants on clopidogrel pharmacodynamics and long-term prognosis in these patients.
Patients who survived an AMI (n=266) were enrolled in a single-center registry. Predischarge platelet reactivity was assessed with light transmittance aggregometry and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay; the CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and ABCB1 3435C>T variants were determined. The primary clinical end point was the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, and ischemic stroke. The median exposure to clopidogrel was 21 months (interquartile range, 13-29). The ABCB1 3435C>T was not related to clopidogrel response or cardiovascular events. Carriage of the CYP2C19 LOF variant allele was relatively high (60.9%, n=162; *2/*17=2, *3/*17=1, *1/*2=96, *1/*3=29, *2/*2=20, and *2/*3=14). Platelet reactivity increased proportionally according to the number of the CYP2C19 LOF alleles. In a multivariate regression analysis, the risk of high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) increased depending on the number of CYP2C19 LOF allele [1 LOF allele; odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8 to 4.2, P=0.152; and 2 LOF alleles; OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.5; P=0.016]; platelet reactivity and the rate of HPR did not differ between the CYP2C19*2 versus *3 allele carriage. In addition, cardiovascular event occurrence increased according to the number of the CYP2C19 LOF allele; compared with noncarriers, carriers of 1 [hazard ratio (HR), 3.1; 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.6; P=0.089] and 2 CYP2C19 LOF allele(s) (HR, 10.1; 95% CI, 1.8-58.8; P=0.008) were associated with clinical end point. The clinical impact of the CYP2C19*2 versus *3 allele carriage also did not differ.
Among East Asian patients who survived an AMI, the CYP2C19 LOF allele carriage appears to affect clopidogrel pharmacodynamics and cardiovascular events according to the number of the CYP2C19 LOF allele; the influence of the CYP2C19*2 and *3 alleles on clopidogrel response and long-term outcomes does not differ.
SourceAvailable from: Ruben L J Osnabrugge[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We systematically investigated how 11 overlapping meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel could yield contradictory outcomes. The results of the meta-analyses differed because more recent meta-analyses included more primary studies and some had not included conference abstracts. Conclusions differed because between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were handled differently across meta-analyses. All meta-analyses on the clinical end point observed significant heterogeneity and several reported evidence for publication bias, but only one out of eight statistically significant meta-analyses concluded that therefore the association was unproven and one other refrained from quantifying a pooled estimate because of heterogeneity. For the end point stent thrombosis, all meta-analyses reported statistically significant associations with CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles with no statistically significant evidence for heterogeneity, but only three had investigated publication bias and also found evidence for it. One study therefore concluded that there was no evidence for an association, and one other doubted the association because of a high level of heterogeneity. In summary, meta-analyses on the association between CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel differed widely with regard to assessment and interpretation of heterogeneity and publication bias. The substantial heterogeneity and publication bias implies that personalized antiplatelet management based on genotyping is not supported by the currently available evidence.Genet Med advance online publication 19 June 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.76.Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 06/2014; 17(1). DOI:10.1038/gim.2014.76 · 6.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background-The degree to which cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype influences the effectiveness of clopidogrel remains uncertain because of considerable heterogeneity in results between studies and potential publication bias. Clopidogrel indication and ethnic population have been proposed to influence the effect of CYP2C19 genotype. Methods and Results-A systematic review was undertaken up to 14 November 2013. Meta-analysis of the CYP2C19 genotype effect was stratified by the predominant clopidogrel indication (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI] versus non-PCI) and ethnic population (white versus Asian) of each primary study. The primary analysis was restricted to studies with >= 500 participants, which comprised 24 studies and a total of 36 076 participants. The association between carriage of >= 1 CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LoF) allele and major cardiovascular outcomes differed significantly (P<0.001) between studies of whites not undergoing PCI (relative risk 0.99 [95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.17]; n=7043), whites undergoing PCI (1.20 [1.10-1.31]; n=19,016), and Asians undergoing PCI (1.91 [1.61-2.27]; n=10,017). Similar differences were identified in secondary analyses of 2 CYP2C19 LoF alleles, stent thrombosis outcomes, and studies with >= 200 participants. Minimal heterogeneity was apparent between studies of Asian populations. Conclusions-The reported association between CYP2C19 LoF allele carriage and major cardiovascular outcomes differs based on the ethnic population of the study and, to a lesser extent, the clopidogrel indication. This is potentially of major importance given that over 50% of Asians carry >= 1 CYP2C19 LoF alleles.Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 09/2014; 7(6):895-902. DOI:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.000669 · 6.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several clinical and genetic variables are associated with influencing high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR). The aim of the study was to propose a path model explaining a concurrent impact among variables influencing HTPR and ischemic events. In this prospective cohort study polymorphisms of CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*17, ABCB1, PON1 alleles and platelet function assessed by Multiple Electrode Aggregometry were assessed in 416 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel and aspirin. The rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded during a 12-month follow up. The path model was calculated by a structural equation modelling. Paths from two clinical characteristics (diabetes mellitus and acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) and two genetic variants (CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17) independently predicted HTPR (path coefficients: 0.11 0.10, 0.17, and -0.10, respectively; p<0.05 for all). By use of those four variables a novel score for prediction of HTPR was built: in a factor-weighted model the risk for HTPR was calculated with an OR of 3.8 (95%CI: 3.1-6.8, p<0.001) for a score level of ≥1 compared with a score of <1. While MACE was independently predicted by HTPR and age in the multivariate model (path coefficient: 0.14 and 0.13, respectively; p<0.05), the coexistence of HTPR and age ≥75 years emerged as the strongest predictor of MACE. Our study suggests a pathway, which might explain indirect and direct impact of variables on clinical outcome: ACS, diabetes mellitus, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*17 genetic variants independently predicted HTPR. In turn, age ≥75 years and HTPR were the strongest predictors of MACE.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102701. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102701 · 3.53 Impact Factor