Degradation of p21Cip1 through anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its activator Cdc20 (APC/CCdc20) ubiquitin ligase complex-mediated ubiquitylation is inhibited by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in cardiomyocytes.
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1 plays a crucial role in regulating cell cycle arrest and differentiation. It is known that p21Cip1 increases during terminal differentiation of cardiomyocytes, but its expression control and biological roles are not fully understood. Here, we show that the p21Cip1 protein is stabilized in cardiomyocytes after mitogenic stimulation, due to its increased CDK2 binding and inhibition of ubiquitylation. The APC/CCdc20 complex is shown to be an E3 ligase mediating ubiquitylation of p21Cip1 at the N terminus. CDK2, but not CDC2, suppressed the interaction of p21Cip1 with Cdc20, thereby leading to inhibition of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its activator Cdc20 (APC/CCdc20)-mediated p21Cip1 ubiquitylation. It was further demonstrated that p21Cip1 accumulation caused G2 arrest of cardiomyocytes that were forced to re-enter the cell cycle. Taken together, these data show that the stability of the p21Cip1 protein is actively regulated in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes and plays a role in inhibiting their uncontrolled cell cycle progression. Our study provides a novel insight on the control of p21Cip1 by ubiquitin-mediated degradation and its implication in cell cycle arrest in terminal differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: p21(Cip1) is a multifunctional protein and a key player in regulating different cellular processes. The transcription of p21 is regulated by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. The expression of p21 is increased in response to various cellular stresses to arrest the cell cycle and ensure genomic stability. p21 has been shown to be a tumor suppressor and an oncogene as well. The function of p21 in mitosis has been proposed but not systematically studied. We have recently shown that p21 binds to and inhibits the activity of Cdk1/cyclin B1, and is important for a fine-tuned mitotic progression. Loss of p21 prolongs the duration of mitosis and results in severe mitotic defects like chromosome segregation and cytokinesis failures promoting consequently genomic instability. Moreover, p21 is dramatically stabilized in mitotic tumor cells upon treatment with mitotic agents like paclitaxel or mitotic kinase inhibitors. Increased p21 is mainly localized in the cytoplasm and associates with cell survival indicating a crucial role of p21 in susceptibility to mitotic agents in tumor cells. In this review we will briefly summarize the structure and general physiological functions as well as regulation of p21, discuss in detail its role in mitosis and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target.Oncogene advance online publication, 26 May 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.133.Oncogene 05/2014; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Scythe/BAT3 is a member of the BAG protein family whose role in apoptosis has been extensively studied. However, since the developmental defects observed in Bat3-null mouse embryos cannot be explained solely by defects in apoptosis, we investigated whether BAT3 is also involved in cell-cycle progression. Using a stable-inducible Bat3-knockdown cellular system, we demonstrated that reduced BAT3 protein level causes a delay in both G1/S transition and G2/M progression. Concurrent with these changes in cell-cycle progression, we observed a reduction in the turnover and phosphorylation of the CDK inhibitor p21, which is best known as an inhibitor of DNA replication; however, phosphorylated p21 has also been shown to promote G2/M progression. Our findings indicate that in Bat3-knockdown cells, p21 continues to be synthesized during cell-cycle phases that do not normally require p21, resulting in p21 protein accumulation and a subsequent delay in cell-cycle progression. Finally, we showed that BAT3 co-localizes with p21 during the cell cycle and is required for the translocation of p21 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during the G1/S transition and G2/M progression. Our study reveals a novel, non-apoptotic role for BAT3 in cell-cycle regulation. By maintaining a low p21 protein level during the G1/S transition, BAT3 counteracts the inhibitory effect of p21 on DNA replication and thus enables the cells to progress from G1 to S phase. Conversely, during G2/M progression, BAT3 facilitates p21 phosphorylation by cyclin A/Cdk2, an event required for G2/M progression. BAT3 modulates these pro- and anti-proliferative roles of p21 at least in part by regulating cyclin A abundance, as well as p21 translocation between the cytoplasm and the nucleus to ensure that it functions in the appropriate intracellular compartment during each phase of the cell cycle.PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38085. · 3.53 Impact Factor