Central nervous system event in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era.
ABSTRACT Central nervous system (CNS) events, including CNS relapse and progression to CNS, are known to be serious complications in the clinical course of patients with lymphoma. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of CNS events in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the rituximab era. We performed a retrospective survey of Japanese patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who underwent primary therapy with R-CHOP chemoimmunotherapy between September 2003 and December 2006. Patients who had received any prophylactic CNS treatment were excluded. Clinical data from 1221 patients were collected from 47 institutions. The median age of patients was 64 years (range, 15-91 years). We noted 82 CNS events (6.7%) and the cumulative 5-year probability of CNS events was 8.4%. Patients with a CNS event demonstrated significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.001). The 2-year overall survival rate after a CNS event was 27.1%. In a multivariate analysis, involvement of breast (relative risk [RR] 10.5), adrenal gland (RR 4.6) and bone (RR 2.0) were identified as independent risk factors for CNS events. We conclude that patients with these risk factors, in addition to patients with testicular involvement in whom CNS prophylaxis has been already justified, are at high risk for CNS events in the rituximab era. The efficacy and manner of CNS prophylaxis in patients for each involvement site should be evaluated further.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the incidence and risk factors for central nervous system (CNS) relapse in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Patient records were registered prospectively in successive patients with NHL admitted to the Norwegian Radium Hospital from 1980 to 1996. A total of 2514 patients had no CNS involvement at diagnosis and were treated according to standard protocols. The incidence and risk factors for CNS progression or relapse were examined retrospectively. In low-grade (L)-NHL, the risk of CNS involvement was low (2.8%). In high-grade (H)-NHL, lymphoblastic and Burkitt's NHL patients had a high risk of CNS recurrence (24.4%) at 5 years, and prophylaxis seemed to reduce this risk. For the other patients with H-NHL, the proportion with CNS involvement at 5 years was 5.2%. Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors, each present in >5% of patients: elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum albumin <35 g/l, <60 years of age, retroperitoneal lymph node involvement and involvement of more than one extranodal site. If four or five of these risk factors were present, the risk of CNS recurrence was in excess of 25% at 5 years. The risk of CNS involvement in this study is comparable with the results from other large series. CNS prophylaxis is not recommended in any subgroup of L-NHL. The risk of CNS involvement among patients with either Burkitt's or lymphoblastic lymphomas is considerable and these patients should therefore receive intensive chemotherapy including systemic and intrathecal methotrexate. Patients with other types of H-NHL should receive adequate CNS prophylaxis if at least four of the five risk factors identified are present.Annals of Oncology 07/2002; 13(7):1099-107. · 7.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The addition of rituximab to CHOP (R-CHOP; CHOP, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy improves outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We evaluated the risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse in the R-CHOP in a population-based cohort of patients with DLBCL. Patients with DLBCL diagnosed from 1 September 1999 to 14 January 2005 at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were identified. Patients were included if they were > or =16 years old with advanced stage or any stage with testicular involvement and were treated with CHOP (1999-2001) or R-CHOP (2001-2005) with curative intent. Four hundred and thirty-five patients were identified; 126 (29%) were treated with CHOP and 309 (71%) with R-CHOP. With a median follow-up of 5.7 years, there were 31 CNS relapses in total with a trend to a reduced likelihood of CNS relapse in R-CHOP-treated patients (3-year risk 9.7% versus 6.4, P = 0.085). In multivariate analysis, the use of rituximab significantly reduced the risk of CNS relapse [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45, P = 0.034]; this benefit was more striking in patients who achieved a complete response (HR 0.18, P = 0.005). The use of R-CHOP appears to reduce the overall risk of CNS relapse in patients with DLBCL particularly in patients who achieve a complete response.Annals of Oncology 10/2009; 21(5):1046-52. · 7.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous entity, with patients exhibiting a wide range of outcomes. The addition of rituximab to CHOP chemotherapy (R-CHOP)has led to a marked improvement in survival and has called into question the significance of previously recognized prognostic markers. Since randomized controlled trials of R-CHOP in DLBCL have included select subgroups of patients, the utility of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) has not been reassessed. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP in the province of British Columbia to assess the value of the IPI in the era of immunochemotherapy. The IPI remains predictive, but it identifies only 2 risk groups. Redistribution of the IPI factors into a revised IPI (R-IPI) provides a more clinically useful prediction of outcome. The R-IPI identifies 3 distinct prognostic groups with a very good (4-year progression-free survival [PFS] 94%, overall survival [OS] 94%), good (4-year PFS 80%, OS 79%), and poor (4-year PFS 53%, OS 55%) outcome, respectively (P < .001). The IPI (or R-IPI) no longer identifies a risk group with less than a 50% chance of survival. In the era of R-CHOP treatment, the R-IPI is a clinically useful prognostic index that may help guide treatment planning and interpretation of clinical trials.Blood 03/2007; 109(5):1857-61. · 9.06 Impact Factor